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NATO Archives Public Disclosure Register

  • NAPDR
  • Corporate body
  • 2015

The NATO Archives Public Disclosure Register consists of reference files designated as the Register. They contain the records of publicly disclosed contents when released under authority of the NATO Archives Committee (AC/324).

NATO Conference on Information Policy

  • AC/87
  • Corporate body
  • 1954-1955

The AC/87 chronological series contains the records of the NATO Conference on Information Policy. This conference, which was chaired by the Chairman of the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations, was held on 25-28 January 1955 in Paris. Its goal was to take stock of the work being carried out by the member nations in the area of information dissemination. The participants noted the delegates' reports and verbal statements on national information programmes on behalf of NATO for 1954 and the projects for 1955, as well as several proposals for future action. On this occasion, the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations was invited to review the Danish proposal seeking to organize exchanges and study tours under NATO sponsorship for the heads of youth movements, as well as proposals from the Director of Information regarding civil defence and those awards which might be given by NATO. A resolution was adopted at the end of the Conference.

NATO International Information Conference

  • AC/1
  • Corporate body
  • 1951

The AC/1 chronological series contains the records of the NATO International Information Conference. This conference was held on 12-14 April 1951 in London, under the auspices of the NATO Information Service and the Heads of Information Services of the twelve signatories to the North Atlantic Treaty.Its purpose was to elicit discussion of the programme proposed by the NATO Information Service, to define the role of NATO's civil and military bodies in the area of information and to allow officials from the various national Information Services to outline the situation prevailing in their countries. During the Conference, problems of organization and liaison between the national information services and the NATO Information Service were addressed. Finally, the conference provided an opportunity to deal with issues related to the use of information technologies and resources for raising awareness of NATO, as well as to the strategy employed in the ideological struggle.The delegates examined several resolutions, which led to the submission of recommendations to the Council Deputies(1).

NATO Pipeline Committee

  • AC/112
  • Corporate body
  • 1956-1965

The AC/112 chronological series contains the records of the NATO Pipeline Committee. On 12 May 1954, the Council approved the establishment of a working group (C-R(54)21) tasked to study the proposals of the Permanent Group (SGM 234-54) for the supervision, operation and maintenance of the NATO POL Pipeline System. Pursuant to these instructions, this Working Group produced an initial report outlining the organization of the supervision, operation and maintenance of the POL system as a whole(1) (C-M(55)74). At its meeting on 18 July 1956, the Council decided (C-R(56)40) to set up the NATO Pipeline Committee, which was tasked, as provided for in documents C-M(55)74 and C-M(56)129, to act on its behalf, in close cooperation with NATO military authorities and other competent bodies (CEPO, CEOA, etc.), on all matters pertaining to the supervision, operation and maintenance of the infrastructure of pipelines of likely interest to NATO as a whole. The NATO Pipeline Committee, made up of representatives from each member nation, was to meet only as required. Its Chairman was appointed by the Secretary General.The Committee met for the first time on 16 August 1956 under the chairmanship of Mr. A. Moreau, Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Production and Logistics. Its first task was to identify the main problems the Committee would need to resolve. It therefore focused initially on funding for the operation and maintenance of the System and on the status of personnel. At its third meeting on 5 November 1956, the Committee decided to set up a Working Group on damage, which would be responsible for looking into the problem of damage caused by the operation of the NATO Pipeline System and to submit proposals concerning financial arrangements and methods of settlement. By late 1965, the NATO Pipeline Committee had held 33 meetings. It still operates today under the name "NATO Petroleum Committee" (2).

North Atlantic Council

  • NAC
  • Corporate body
  • 1949

The North Atlantic Council is the principal political decision-making body within NATO. It brings together high-level representatives of each member country to discuss policy or operational questions requiring collective decisions. In sum, it provides a forum for wide-ranging consultation between members on all issues affecting their peace and security.All members have an equal right to express their views and share in the consensus on which decisions are based. Decisions are agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. This means that policies decided upon by the North Atlantic Council (NAC) are supported by and are the expression of the collective will of all the sovereign states that are members of the Alliance and are accepted by all of them.Strictly speaking, the NAC is not the only body within NATO that carries such a high degree of authority. The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) has comparable authority for matters within its specific area of competence. However, in practice, the NAC convenes far more frequently than the NPG and covers a broader scope of themes – as broad as the member countries decide it should be. Consequently, it is commonly referred to as NATO’s principal decision-making body.

Effective political authority and powers of decision. The NAC has effective political authority and powers of decision. It is the only body that was established by the North Atlantic Treaty, under Article 9:“The Parties hereby establish a council, on which each of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The council shall be so organized as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defense committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.”

In addition to being the only body invested with the authority to set up “such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary”, it is also the ultimate authority at the head of a large, intricate network of committees and working groups. It is often referred to as “the Council”. The NAC is the principal political decision-making body and oversees the political and military process relating to security issues affecting the whole Alliance. Items discussed and decisions taken at meetings of the Council cover all aspects of the Organization's activities and are frequently based on reports and recommendations prepared by subordinate committees at the Council's request. Equally, subjects may be raised by the Secretary General or any one of the national representatives, in particular under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty: “The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.” Representation at different levels; Representatives of all member countries of NATO have a seat at the NAC. It can meet at the level of “permanent representatives” (or “ambassadors”), at the level of foreign and defence ministers, and at the level of heads of state and government. Its decisions have the same status and validity at whatever level it meets.

The NAC is chaired by the Secretary General. In the absence of the Secretary General, the Deputy Secretary General chairs the meetings. The longest serving ambassador on the Council assumes the title of dean of the Council. Primarily a ceremonial function, the dean may be called upon to play a more specific presiding role, for example in convening meetings and chairing discussions at the time of the selection of a new Secretary General. At ministerial meetings of foreign ministers, one country's foreign minister assumes the role of honorary president. The position rotates annually among members in the order of the English alphabet. The ambassadors sit round the table in order of nationality, following the English alphabetical order. The same procedure is followed throughout the NATO committee structure.

Working procedures; The NAC meets at least every week and often more frequently, at the level of permanent representatives; it meets twice a year at the level of ministers of foreign affairs, three times a year at the level of ministers of defence, and occasionally at the summit level with the participation of prime ministers and heads of state and government. Permanent representatives act on instruction from their capitals, informing and explaining the views and the policy decisions of their governments to their colleagues around the table. Conversely they report back to their national authorities on the views expressed and positions taken by other governments, informing them of new developments and keeping them abreast of movement toward consensus on important issues or areas where national positions diverge. Each country represented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions.

Preparing the Council's work. The work of the Council is prepared by subordinate committees with responsibility for specific areas of policy. Much of this work involves the Deputies Committee, consisting of Deputy Permanent Representatives.The Council has an important public profile and issues declarations and communiqués explaining the Alliance's policies and decisions. These documents are normally published after ministerial or summit meetings. The Deputies Committee has particular responsibility for preparing such documents and meets in advance of ministerial meetings to draft the texts for Council approval. A similar role is played by the Nuclear Planning Staff Group on behalf of the Nuclear Planning Group. Other aspects of political work may be handled by the Political and Partnerships Committee. Depending on the topic under discussion, the respective senior committee with responsibility for the subject assumes the leading role in preparing Council meetings and following up Council decisions. When the Council meets at the level of defence ministers, or is dealing with defence matters and questions relating to defence strategy, senior committees such as the Defence Policy and Planning Committee may be involved as principal advisory bodies. If financial matters are on the Council's agenda, the Resource Policy and Planning Board will be responsible to the Council for preparing relevant aspects of its work.

Supporting the Council; Direct support to the Council is provided by the Secretary of the Council, who ensures that Council mandates are executed and its decisions recorded and circulated. A small Council Secretariat ensures the bureaucratic and logistical aspects of the NAC's work, while the relevant divisions of the International Staff support the work of committees reporting to the NAC. Generally speaking, the entire International Staff at NATO HQ supports the work of the Council, either directly or indirectly, and helps to ensure that Council decisions are implemented.

North Atlantic Council Deputies

  • D
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-1952

Established by the North Atlantic Council on 17th May 1950, this permanent body was tasked with executing the Council's directives in the intervals between the sessions of the Council. The terms of reference state that "to enable the Council to carry out its responsibilities and to exercise them continuously, each government will appoint a Deputy to its Council representative". The Council Deputies were responsible, on behalf and in the name of the Council, for formulating policies requiring decisions by the member governments. It was also decided that the Council Deputies would have their headquarters in London. The Deputies met for the first time on 25 July 1950 and elected the US Deputy Mr. Charles Spofford as their Chairman. His duties included chairing the meetings of the Deputies and directing the organisation and its work. Mr. T.A.G. Charlton (UK) was appointed Secretary of the Council and of the Council Deputies. An International Secretariat was also created to perform the necessary administrative tasks for the Deputies. The Council Deputies established working groups and ad hoc committees to prepare studies and reports for them to examine.In May 1951 a reorganisation took place and the role of the Deputies was further enhanced: as well has having the general terms of reference of the Council, the Council Deputies were responsible for co-ordinating the activities of and giving guidance to all the other permanent bodies of NATO, exchanging views on political matters of common interest within the scope of the Treaty, dealing directly with the Military Committee and the Standing Group on political matters having a military implication, promoting and co-ordinating public information activities and considering what further action should be taken under Article 2 [D-D(51)86(Final)].During the second half of 1951 it became evident that to advance the effectiveness of NATO, a further reorganisation was necessary. At the Ministerial Session of Lisbon in February 1952 it was decided that the newly created Council in permanent session would assume the tasks performed by the Council Deputies. The abolition of the Council Deputies became effective as of 5 April 1952 [D-D(52)99].

North Atlantic Council, 1st to 9th sessions

  • C1-C9
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1952

The C chronological series contains the records of the North Atlantic Council (the Council). The Council was created in accordance with Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington. It held its first meeting on 17 September 1949. The Council is the main body of NATO. Under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty, and in particular Article 9 thereof, the Council is responsible for considering matters concerning the implementation of the Treaty. To assist it in that task, it sets up subsidiary bodies. (see C1-COUNCIL-D1/1). Its functioning is flexible and can be adjusted periodically.During the first period of its existence (September 1949 to February 1952), the Council held nine sessions during which it made the essential arrangements for ensuring NATO's continued existence and proper functioning, with respect to arms, defence planning and funding. On 21 October 1951, the Council took a decision on a first enlargement of the Alliance to include Greece and Turkey (see C7-D/27). It also sought the establishment of the International Staff. This period can be divided into three successive phases. The first phase covers the first four sessions. The first session was held in Washington on 17 September 1949, when the Treaty was signed. The Council, the Defence Committee and the Military Committee were created in accordance with Article 9 of the Treaty, and the latter two were tasked with recommending steps for implementing Articles 3 and 5 of the Treaty to the Council. Document C1-COMMUNIQUE, published after the first session, gave practical details about how the meetings would run, including the frequency, the location, the chairmanship, the language, etc. (see C1-COMMUNIQUE).The second session, held in Washington on 18 November 1949, mainly addressed military equipment and financial matters. In that connection, a Defence Financial and Economic Committee (DFEC) and a Military Production and Supply Board (MPSB) were established (see C2-COUNCIL-D1/4). The fourth session, held in London on 15–18 May 1950, proposed expanding the field of activities of the Treaty to cover the economic and social development of the Member countries and other countries of the free world (see C4-COUNCIL-D4/18). As the workload had become unmanageable, the Council established the Council Deputies to allow for more frequent coordination meetings. The Deputies met permanently in London and represented the Foreign Ministers, who continued to sit on the Council (see D series). The second phase begins with the fifth Council session, held in New York on 15–18 December 1950. At the proposal of the United States, this session focused on the creation of an integrated military force capable of defending the NATO area in Europe. (see C5-D11 FINAL)At the sixth session, held in Brussels on 18–19 December 1950, General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) at the recommendation of the Defence Committee (see C6-D9). Its headquarters (SHAPE) was established in Paris in January 1951, and then permanently in Rocquencourt in July 1951.To make sure that every country was represented in the Council by a person who was familiar with all the business being discussed, it was decided that "each government would be represented by one or more ministers depending on the agenda". Heads of government could henceforth take part in the Council in person (see C6-D4).Also at that session, the MPSB was replaced with a Defence Production Board (DPB) with greater powers (see C6-D4). The third phase started with the seventh session, held in Ottawa on 20–25 September 1951. For the first time Foreign, Defence and Economic/Finance Ministers met together. The Protocol to the Treaty on the Accession of Greece and Turkey was proposed for signature by the national representatives (see C7-D27 FINAL). At that time NATO was feeling the need to rearm itself to face the Soviet threat. A Temporary Council Committee (TCC ) was established to take stock of requirements and draw up defence plans. Each country reported on the status of its defence effort (see C7-D29, and British report C7-D5 as an example). A Committee on the North Atlantic Community was introduced to coordinate foreign policy and further develop consultation on Member countries' economic, social and cultural matters. The eighth session was held in Rome on 24–28 November 1951. For the first time, the Council meeting was held after the Military Committee meeting. The main business of the meeting was the possibility of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) joining NATO, which was supported by SACEUR (see C8-D15). At the ninth session, held in Lisbon on 20–25 February 1952, the TCC report on the mobilization of peacetime resources for defence was discussed (see C9-D13). In addition, the Council noted a report on the conference to organize a European Defence Community (EDC) and approved that initiative (see C9-D12).Finally, the Council decided "to appoint a Secretary-General, who will head a unified international secretariat designed to assist the Council in the fulfilment of its responsibilities. (...) The Council will assume the functions hitherto performed by the Council Deputies, the Defence Production Board and the Financial and Economic Board" (see C9-D22 FINAL). That decision marks the end of the document series covered by this archival description.

North Atlantic Studies Committee

  • AC/151
  • Corporate body
  • 1959-1960

The AC/151 chronological series contains the records of the North Atlantic Studies Committee. On 23 March 1958 the Expert Working Group on the Fellowship and Scholarship Program met and recommended the creation of a Committee for North Atlantic Studies to include scholars from all member countries who would propose subjects for studies and supervise the Fellowship Program (see C-M(58)133). Based on this proposal, NATO Secretary General Mr. Spaak asked the Council to approve the creation and terms of reference of the Committee (see PO(58)1452, C-R(58)56 , PO(59)219 and C-R(59)11). Following several drafts, the terms of reference were finally approved for the newly defined provisional Committee on 20 March 1959 (see PO(59)479). The Committee consisted of a Chairman -Belgian Permanent Representative Mr. de Staercke- and a representative member from all the other nationalities. On 11 June 1959 the North Atlantic Studies Committee held its first meeting to designate NATO fellows for the period 1959-1960 (see C-M(59)64).During the Council meeting of 17 June 1959 it was proposed by the Belgian representative to add a supplement to the publication “NATO – the First Five Years” (C-R(59)24) On 1 September 1959 the Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs also issued a memorandum on a proposed sequel to the publication “NATO – the First Five Years” by Lord Ismay. In this memorandum it was recommended to create a permanent historical section to put some order to NATO’s records and to prepare historical studies (see AC/151-D(59)1)The North Atlantic Studies Committee held its second meeting on 10-11 September 1959 where it was decided to recommend to the Council to approve the elaboration of studies about the Alliance, a booklet on NATO communiqués, the setting up within the International Staff of a permanent historical section and the provision of support to the Atlantic Treaty Association Conference for University Teachers of International Public Law and International Relations (see AC/151-R(59)1). These recommendations were approved by the Council on 21 October 1959 (see C-R(59)35). During this Council meeting, there were some discussions about the creation of an Atlantic Institute for studies as proposed in AC/52-D(58)31, whose purposes were defined by the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations in document AC/52-WP(60)45. The last meeting of the North Atlantic Studies Committee took place on 31 March 1960 when the NATO fellows for 1960-1961 were selected (see PO(61)296). On 1 January 1961 the Atlantic Institute was created to take over some of the functions of the North Atlantic Studies Committee (see PO(61)80). During the Council meeting of 15 March 1961 it was agreed that a Selection Committee should be created as proposed in PO/61/296 for the fellowship programme, and it was decided to disband the North Atlantic Studies Committee (see C-R(61)9).

NP - Public Diplomacy Division (PDD)

  • PDD NP
  • Corporate body
  • 2003

The NATO Information Service was established by Council resolution in 1950, and was most recently restructured into the Public Diplomacy Division in 2003. The NATO Information Service and later the Public Diplomacy Division created hundreds of informational publications, some on one-off topics, such as an anniversary of NATO, and longer serials, such as the “Aspect of NATO” series.

Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee

  • NDAC
  • Corporate body
  • 1966

The Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC) chronological series contains the records of the NDAC. The NDAC was created in December 1966, as a forum in which the nations could discuss nuclear issues facing NATO. The NDAC was founded when the Defence Planning Committee in Ministerial Session accepted the recommendation of the Special Committee of Defence Ministers, chaired by Robert McNamara of the United States, to establish a consultative process on nuclear doctrine within NATO. Unlike the subordinate Nuclear Planning Group(1), membership in the NDAC was open to all NATO members . The NDAC was chaired by the Secretary General and had the responsibility of proposing policies on nuclear issues. It met at ministerial level, usually alongside ministerial-level meetings of the North Atlantic Council, and more frequently at the level of permanent representatives. The NDAC received all the documentation produced by the NPG, and discussed, reviewed and approved the NPG’s reports, before transmitting them to the North Atlantic Council for approval. The NDAC also established overall NATO guidelines for the deployment and use of NATO’s nuclear weapons. This included providing assessments of the Warsaw Pact’s military capabilities and its political and diplomatic intentions.

Nuclear Planning Group

  • NPG
  • Corporate body
  • 1966

The NPG chronological series contains the records of the Nuclear Planning Group. The Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) is NATO’s principal body for planning, discussing and deciding on matters relating to nuclear policy. The NPG was founded on 14 December 1966, when the Defence Planning Committee in Ministerial Session accepted the recommendation of the Special Committee of Defence Ministers, chaired by Robert McNamara of the United States, to establish a consultative process on nuclear doctrine within NATO. Ministers implemented these recommendations by creating the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee(1), which included all NATO members, and the NPG, which was restricted to nations participating in NATO’s integrated military structure, and was mandated to carry out detailed work on nuclear issues. In order to facilitate the NPG’s work, only seven nations sat on the Group at any one time. The United States, United Kingdom, Italy and West Germany were permanent members, while appointments to the other three NPG seats lasted for one year, and rotated amongst the eligible nations. The NPG met for the first time at the level of defence ministers, in Washington, on 6-7 April 1967. From that point on, the NPG met twice per year in ministerial session, and more frequently at the level of permanent representatives. The method of working at the ministerial level was to give a minister responsibility for leading the discussions on each agenda item. To help carry out the work on nuclear issues, in 1968 the NPG (Staff Group) was established. Membership in the NPG (Staff Group) was restricted to nations participating in NATO’s integrated military structure. The NPG (Staff Group) prepared and supported meetings of the NPG at both ministerial and permanent representative levels, and oversaw nuclear issues on a daily basis. In 1977, the NPG (High Level Group) was established as the NPG’s senior body to provide advice to ministers on nuclear issues. Membership in the NPG (High Level Group) was also restricted to nations participating in NATO’s integrated military structure.

Petroleum Planning Committee

  • AC/12
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-2003

The AC/12 chronological series contains the records of the Petroleum Planning Committee (PPC). The PPC is one of the eight Civil Emergency Planning (CEP) planning boards and committees responsible for peacetime coordination and follow-up of the NATO countries' arrangements for maintaining civil preparedness in emergencies and times of crisis. Its creation is approved by the Council Deputies on 28 January 1952 (see D-R(52)8). Its initial terms of reference established on 28 January 1952 (see (D-D(52)6-FINAL) were amended on 28/11/1952 (C-M(52)112), then revised on 15/12/1966 (AC/12-D/357). In line with its terms of reference, the PPC established the bodies it deemed appropriate to assist it. For information, three sub-groups were active in 1988: the PPC Working Group (PPCWG), the Oil Data and Communication Group (ODCG), and the Training and Exercise Group (TEG) (see AC/12-D/795). The PPC's mission was to appraise the countries' petroleum requirements in the event of war and do the necessary planning for meeting any problems that might arise (see D-D(52)6-FINAL). Starting in 1973, the planning also covered gas requirements (see AC/12-DS/69). For that purpose, it was responsible for the proper functioning of the NATO Wartime Oil Organization (NWOO). In these fields, the PPC's functions conformed to the basic aims of CEP, i.e. to ensure the survival of populations in the event of an attack, the support of military operations, the protection and utilization of vital resources, and the early recovery and rehabilitation of the countries (see AC/12-D/357). The PPC normally met twice a year (see AC/12-D/795). The chairmanship, preferably rotational, was held by a national representative for a period of three years; starting in 1962 the chairman could be re-elected for a further one year (see AC/12-R/42 and AC/98-D/161). Representatives of the NATO military committees had to attend the meetings of the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC).Originally the PPC reported to the Council Deputies through the Financial and Economic Board (FEB) (see D-D(52)6-FINAL). Each government was represented in the PPC by a representative and an alternate. It could also designate advisers to its representative (see D-D(52)6-FINAL).After the FEB was abolished in 1952 (see D-R(52)27-FINAL), the PPC was linked to the Committee on Wartime Commodity Problems (AC/25) until the latter was dissolved for the creation of the SCEPC (see AC/98-D/1 and C-M(55)100).Thus the PPC became one of the CEP planning boards and committees. Given the review of the the CEP planning and review cycle every four years, the PPC approved its program and its work objectives for the forthcoming cycle at the start of each cycle. These proposals were submitted to the SCEPC, then to the Council, and finally to the ministers for approval (see C-M(77)16). During the cycle, the PPC made an annual report to the SCEPC plenary and, through it, to the Council (see AC/12-D/79). In its annual report, the PPC presented to what extent progress had been made, indicating wherever possible how the Allied countries had benefited from its work (see AC/12-D/357).It had a close working relationship, either directly or through its subordinate services, with the other NATO bodies involved in the development of plans for the wartime oil situation: in particular with the Standing Group, the Planning Board for Ocean Shipping and the Defence Production Board (see D-D(52)6-FINAL). The PPC was declared dormant by the SCEPC on 21/01/1999, then disbanded on 7 January 2003 (see AC/98-N(2003)1)

Petroleum Planning Committee team of pipeline and storage experts

  • AC/12(PS)
  • Corporate body
  • 1953

The AC/12(PS) chronological series contains the records of the Petroleum Planning Committee (PPC) team of pipeline and storage experts (hereinafter referred to as "the Team").The Team was established by the PPC following a request from the Infrastructure Committee (see AC/12-D/45). Its mandate was to assess whether the Fifth Slice POL Infrastructure Programme, recommended by SHAPE in AG_6100/5/E-709/53_LOG, would overcome the shortfall in capabilities for the distribution of POL in the event of war. If not, it would propose the construction of safe and economical pipelines and storage tanks in sufficient numbers (see AC/12(PS)-R/1). It should report on these questions by 20 September 1953 at the latest. As it did not have time to produce a detailed report, the Infrastructure Committee agreed to accept a preliminary report (see AC/12-D/44). The Team presented its report to the PPC via its Chairman at the meeting held on 7 September 1953 (see AC/12(PS)-R/1). The Team held its last meeting on 7 September 1953 (see AC/12(PS)-R/1).

Planning Board for European Inland Surface Transport

  • AC/15
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-2010

The AC/15 chronological series contains the records of the Planning Board for European Inland Surface Transport (PBEIST). The PBEIST was established by the North Atlantic Council (Council) on 2 September 1952 (see C-R(52)14). The initial terms of reference from 9/8/1952 were revised on 4/8/1966 (C-M(66)66). The PBEIST was one of the Civil Emergency Planning (CEP) planning boards and committees, whose aim was to ensure the survival of populations in the event of an attack, the support of military operations, the protection and utilization of vital resources, and the early recovery and rehabilitation of the countries (see AC/12-D/357).In this framework, the PBEIST was responsible for drawing up plans and making policy recommendations for guaranteeing optimal wartime utilization of all inland civil and military transport in Europe (excluding air transport). The port studies were done in conjunction with the Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (PBOS) (see, for example, the terms of reference of the PBOS/PBEIST Joint Working Group created in 1989, AC/15-D/462). The PBEIST met twice a year. It carried out a biennial programme of work approved by the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC) and produced activity reports plus other intermediate reports as required (see C-M(95)61).It was chaired by a chairman who was appointed for a 3-year term. The chairmanship was preferably rotational and renewable for one-year terms (see AC/98-D/161). The staff officer for inland surface transport in the CEP Directorate attended the meetings. The NATO Military Authorities and interested Member nations appointed a representative to it (see C-M(52)45).Under its terms of reference, the PBEIST could recommend the creation or dissolution of bodies to support it for specific tasks to the SCEPC. Hence, the PBEIST created a Steering Committee (AC/15(SG)) in charge of preparing the work of the PBEIST and coordinate the tasks assigned to all bodies placed under the supervision of the PBEIST, namely : The three Regional Permanent Sub-Committees Northern Europe (AC/15(NE)), Southern Europe (AC/15(SE)) and Central Europe (AC/15(CE)) ; the Permanent Railroad Transport Sub-Committee (AC/15(RRT)), the three Permanent Sub-Committees on Railway Transport (AC/15(RRT)), Road Transport (AC/15(RT)), Ports and Beaches and Inland Waterways Transport (AC/15(PB-IWT)), and Inter Modal Ad Hoc Group on the Handling of Containers (AC/15(SC)) (see C-M(89)82). On 8/6/2010, the PBOS and the PBEIST merged into the Transport Group (AC/329). This marked the end of the PBEIST (see PO(2010)0074-REV2).

Planning Board for Ocean Shipping

  • AC/271
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-2010

The AC/271 (PBOS) chronological series(1) contains the records of the Planning Board for Ocean Shipping.The North Atlantic Council approved the establishment of the Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (PBOS) in May 1950 with its acceptance of the "International Working Group Report on Establishment of a Planning Board for Ocean Shipping in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization" (C-R-4/5). The initial mission of PBOS was the planning for an emergency organization which would be able to coordinate the most efficient use of shipping resources in wartime. A small number of technical working groups were set up in 1950 to facilitate this planning work. This effort resulted in the Defence Shipping Authority (DSA), which was to have the authority to pool all allied ocean going merchant vessels for the purpose of maintaining a steady flow of food, supplies, military equipment and armed forces personnel. The DSA was to carry out this role according to the civil and military shipping priorities set by the Alliance. (PBOS2/2).After the first two years of existence, during which it met three times, PBOS met once a year for a plenary to discuss a wide range of issues related to shipping and emergency planning. PBOS membership consisted of national representatives from all Allied nations with merchant marine fleets, and the Board was supported by a permanent secretariat headquartered in London. The chair of PBOS alternated each year between an American official and a British official, corresponding to the nation hosting the plenary meeting. In 1997 the United States agreed to take over responsibility for the secretariat, and the London office was closed on 31 March 1997.To fully explore the relevant issues and to draw on national experts, PBOS over the years set up a number of different working and study groups, including the PBOS Bunker and Tanker Committee; PBOS Coasting Committee; PBOS Working Committee on Heavy Lifts; PBOS Communications Working Party; PBOS Working Committee on Troopship Standards; PBOS Special Working Committee - SIDESTEP Sub-Group; PBOS Joint Technical Committee; PBOS FALLEX 62 Sub-group; PBOS CIVLOG 65 Planning Team; PBOS Container Study Group; PBOS D and L Card Study Group; PBOS Defence Shipping Authority Plans Review Study Group; and the PBOS Sealift Procurement Study Group. In addition, PBOS created joint groups with the Planning Board for European Inland Surface Transport (PBEIST), the Joint PBOS/PBEIST Coastal Shipping Group, and with the Petroleum Planning Committee, the Joint PBOS/PPC Bunkering Study Group and the Joint PBOS/PPC Oil and Tanker Sub-Group. These different subordinate groups generally produced reports which were forwarded to PBOS for review and acceptance.

Policy and Planning

  • IMSM(P&P)
  • Corporate body
  • 1967

International Military Staff Memorandum - Policy and Planning

Political Committee

  • AC/119
  • Corporate body
  • 1957

The AC/119 chronological series contains the records of the Political Committee. Established by the North Atlantic Council in January 1957 (C-M(57)3), pursuant to the recommendation of the Committee of Three(1), this committee is made up of a representative of each delegation, accompanied by experts from his or her country as required. It is chaired by the Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs. The Political Committee is responsible for carrying out all of the studies and preparatory work to assist the Council and the Secretary General in fulfilling their political consultation responsibilities. It inherited tasks that had been previously assigned to the Working Group on Trends of Soviet Policy(2). The Political Committee(3) met for the first time on 29 January 1957. In order to fulfil its wide-ranging mission, it was decided to set up subgroups of regional experts in order to address specific issues and provide a broad outline of the situation in each part of the world. Beginning in 1957, groups of regional experts reporting to the Political Committee began to operate. These were: - the Working Group on Trends of Soviet Policy, which took over from the former AC/34 working group; - the Group of Experts on the Satellite Countries, whose first report was issued in March 1957; - the Group of Middle East Experts, which met for the first time in March 1957; - the Group of Far East Experts, whose first meeting was held in November 1958; - the Working Group on Latin America, set up in 1961; - the Working Group on Africa, the only group whose documents had their own reference number (AC/146), which was abandoned in 1961. In 1967 the Council broadened the terms of reference of the Political Committee, after which point disarmament experts would meet under its auspices at regular intervals.The Political Committee is a standing committee which still sits today.

Political Working Group

  • AC/2
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1952

The AC/2 chronological series contains the records of the Political Working Group. The Political Working Group was active between March 1951 and March 1952(1) and met in Belgrave Square, London. After that date there are no records testifying to its existence. Having achieved its mission, it was disbanded after the ninth session of the North Atlantic Council. The Political Working Group’s role was to reorganize NATO and to provide the Council Deputies with information about East Germany, Western European countries, the USSR and Switzerland, and about the relative political, economic and military capabilities of NATO and the USSR. After the Political Working Group disbanded, the Council assumed responsibility for political issues until 1957. The Working Group on Trends of Soviet Policy (AC/34) took over the issue of the orientation of Soviet foreign policy.

PR - Public Diplomacy Division (PDD)

  • PR
  • Corporate body
  • 1961-2007

A Director of Information Services was first appointed in September of 1950, with the objective of coordinating with the press and developing public opinion in member countries (D-R/20 and D-R/26). Originally, the Information Service did not draft Press Releases, or any other printed materials, but instead coordinated with member nations and press agencies (D-D/186). The communiqués and releases published by NATO starting in 1949 are often created by the committees or divisions themselves. By 1954, the Information Directorate were jointly issuing Press Communiqués with the press services of member nations (AC/52-D/38). In 1957, a Press Section was split from the Information Section in order to manage daily contact with journalists (PO/57/859). Releases were managed by the governments and press services of the member nations with input and information from the Press Section. By the 1960s, releases for ministerial meetings became more common and communiqués were issued for a variety of purposes. By 1994, NATO, SHAPE and AFSOUTH documentation, including communiqués, press releases, speeches and newsletters became available via the “NATO Online” list server (PR/CP(94)24). The following year, a website was developed to host NATO information of public value. Documents would be available both in print and online. In March 2008, a new website was launched and the paper copies of Press Releases were discontinued.

Private Office of the Secretary General

  • PO
  • Corporate body
  • 1955

The PO series contains the memoranda issued by the Private Office of the Secretary General. The Private Office supports the Secretary General and the Deputy Secretary General in all aspects of their work. It is headed by a Director assisted by several Deputy Directors. The first two appointed directors held the title of Private Secretary. Although the Private Office of the Secretary General was established when the post of Secretary General was created at the 1952 Lisbon Ministerial Meeting, the PO reference only appears on the memoranda issued by the Private Office as from 1955. A few numbered memoranda addressed to Permanent Representatives dated 1953 and 1954 have been microfilmed.

Public Diplomacy Division (PDD)

  • PDD
  • Corporate body
  • 2003

The NATO Information Service (alternately referred to as the Information Division and the Information Directorate, depending on its hierarchical position within the Organization at a given moment) was principally tasked with informing public opinion about the aims and achievements of the Atlantic Alliance. It assisted Member governments with collecting and developing information programmes about NATO activities and policies for distribution to publicity outlets through various communication media. The Information Service was also responsible for outreach tasks such as coordinating and supervising all press arrangements for Council meetings, arranging group visits to NATO HQ andorganizing conferences, special courses and seminars on NATO matters. It provided administrative support for all NATO activities, meetings and committees related to information.The origins of the NATO Information Service are found in Council Resolution No. 4/7 of 18 May 1950 (D-4/15 Final), whereby the North Atlantic Treaty Council resolved to ‘promote and coordinate public information in furtherance of the objectives of the Treaty while leaving responsibility for national programmes to each country’. By August 1950, the creation of an Information Service was approved (D-D/17 Revised), followed shortly thereafter by the appointment of a Director of Information (D-R/20), who was immediately tasked with recruiting an Information Service staff (D-D/186) and establishing its terms of reference (D-D/187).The Information Service was initially structured into sections that operationalized its main functions: Press Relations; Editorial; Special Media (film, television, radio, photography, exhibits) and Research ISM(53)30). In 1957, the Information Service was reorganized to become the Information Division in order to focus specifically on long-term information projects: Public Relations and Special Media;programmes and Publications; and Regional Relations (the coordination of youth activities was added in 1959). This reorganization also resulted in the creation of a separate Press Service to deal specificallywith daily press relations and the documentation function (PO(57)859). Though the Information Division and the Press Service worked in parallel, they were considered separate units that were both under the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary General of Political Affairs.A major internal reorganization of the Information Division in 1963 led to a substantial shift in the structure of its operations (BC-D(63)20). The documentation function of the Press Service and the cultural affairs function of the Political Division (which comprised the NATO Fellowship and Scholarship programme and the Visiting Professorship programme) were transferred to the newly renamed Information Directorate, which was split into two major sections that distinguished its functions with respect to production and promotion: Media Operations and Public Affairs.The significant restructuring of the International Staff that accompanied the move to Brussels in 1967 gave rise to the creation of a newly amalgamated Division of Political Affairs, Information and Press (PO(67)122). A reorganization of the Information Directorate followed in 1969 (BC-D(69)45), leading to a configuration of three main sections in an effort to achieve a more logical distribution of work: Information Policy, Research and Writing; Media Production; and External Affairs and Regional Relations. In 1981, the Information Directorate became responsible for its own planning and budget administration (ON(81)58).The Information Directorate merged with the Press Service in 1990 to become the new Office of Information and Press (OIP) (PO(90)93). The OIP was originally structured into two main services: a Press and Media Service and an Information Service, which was subdivided into three sections: Planning, Editorial and Budget; Audiovisual Productions; and External Relations. By 2001, an increased emphasis on new outreach approaches led to an expansion of the External Relations Section to take the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programmes into account. Particular attention was placed on NATO’s special bilateral relationship with Russia and its partnership withUkraine, as evidenced by the establishment of information field offices in Kyiv (opened in May 1997) and in Moscow (opened in February 2001). The NATO HQ reforms of 2003 (SG(2003)0429) gave rise to an extensive restructuring of the International Staff, as part of which the OIP was merged with the Scientific and Environmental Affairs Division to produce the new Public Diplomacy Division (PDD).

Publications - Public Diplomacy Division (PDD)

  • PUB
  • Corporate body
  • 2003

The NATO Information Service was established by Council resolution on May 18, 1950, in order “to promote and coordinate public information in furtherance of the objectives of the Treaty, while leaving responsibility for national programmes to each country.” The Information Service first operated from London to provide public relations services for NATO and the newly formed international staff. In 1957, the Information Service was put under the Political Affairs Division, where it remained until 1990, when it split off to become the Office of Information and Press. The Information Service was renamed and restructured as the Public Diplomacy Division (PDD) in March 31st, 2003.

RECORD - Defence Committee

  • RECORD-DC
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1951

This chronological Series contains the official records of the four meetings of the Defence Committee.

RECORD - Director of the Standing Group

  • RECORD-DSG
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-1951

RECORD-DSG documents are records of meetings of the SG Director held on the sidelines of formal Standing Group meetings. These meetings were attended by representatives from the three SG working teams and other NATO nations, as well as by the person in charge of the secretariat and the members of the working team which drafted the document submitted for consideration. The first meeting was held on 11 January 1950. The SG Director was responsible for supervising and coordinating the work of the International Planning Staff under his management (see SSGM-124-64). In order to do this, he: -received an oral activity report by each SG committee, -presented the work to be performed and the methods to be used,-decided on the SG meeting agendas and the documents to be submitted.

RECORD - International Planning Team of the Standing Group

  • RECORD(IPT)
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1966

The Standing Group (hereinafter referred to as the SG) had an internal structure of technical and consultative committees (see SGM-1702-53). One of those was the International Planning Team (IPT), active from 1952 to 1964. The Standing Group and all its subordinate groups (including the IPT) were abolished in July 1966 after France decided to withdraw from the integrated military structure (see MCM-90-66(REV) and GF(66)D-27).

RECORD - Military Committee

  • RECORD-MC
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1959

The meetings of the MC/CS were held in various places in Europe and also in Washington, D.C. The meeting records have been incorporated into the ongoing series of RECORD MC documents. Starting in 1958 the Military Representatives Committee (MRC) documents were incorporated into the RECORD MC series.

RECORD - Military Representatives Committee

  • RECORD-MRC
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-1957

This chronological Series contains the official records of the 147 meetings of the Military Representatives Committee.

RECORD - Standing Group

  • RECORD-SG
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1966

The Standing Group (SG) was made up of the French, British and US representatives, who acted as Chairman on a rotating basis. It met weekly from October 1949 to June 1966 and each meeting resulted in the publication of a RECORD-SG document. Meetings dealt with issues raised by: -the SG working groups, secretariat, committees and agencies, -the Secretary General, the Council and the civil committees, -the Military Committee (MC/CS and MC/PS) and senior commanders.

Relocation Group

  • AC/267
  • Corporate body
  • 1969-1973

The AC/267 chronological series contain the documents of the Relocation Group. Informally established in February 1967, as a result of the transition of NATO Headquarters from Paris to Brussels, the group aimed to look at relocation from an administrative and policy standpoint and to serve as a forum to discuss related issues. On 17th October 1968, a report by the Relocation Group detailed the essential factors to be taken into account for a Permanent Headquarters (see C-M(68)51). The document outlined building costs, construction time and the space requirements with respect to the site available to NATO at Heysel. Based on the report, the Council expressed concerns with regards to high costs associated with a brand new building, the considerable length of time required, and the inadequate space available at Heysel (C-R(68)60). Due to these concerns, the Council instructed the Relocation Group, in close collaboration with the Belgian Authorities, to study the means and to prepare cost-estimates for the transformation of the Temporary Headquarters at Evere into an acceptable Permanent Headquarters. At the first formal meeting on 25th February 1969, it was agreed that future papers of the Relocation Group should be circulated under a new AC/ reference number (See AC/267-DS/1). At this first meeting, the group began to address the replies from delegations regarding the questionnaire on space requirements, the legal and administrative problems associated with the conversion of Evere to a Permanent Headquarters, and the finalization of the sale of Villa Said, Paris (the correspondence for which can be seen in AC/267-D/1). The Group then began discussion on the legal and technical aspects for the Conversion of Evere into a Permanent Headquarters. These plans included additional buildings, modifications and supplementary facilities, and embellishments. A drafting group was then tasked with drawing up a possible agreement between Belgium and NATO on the concession of additional land at Evere and the compensation for the residual value of the NATO Headquarters. On 11th July 1969, the permanent Representative of Belgium indicated, in AC/267-D/5, that Belgium was prepared to make an additional three hectares available to the Organization, based on the legal aspects described therein. At the 28th August 1969 meeting, the Group noted that during the period of detailed study of the programme for conversion of the Headquarters, other NATO committees should be consulted. The Relocation Group, in AC/267-D/6 and its subsequent revisions outlined a tentative programme, the life expectancy of the building, a proposal by the Consultant Architects and Engineer, a time schedule, cost estimates and ultimately conclusions and recommendations, which, upon a more detailed study of technical and financial aspects, could be recommended to the Council. Additionally, this document included a birds-eye-view of Evere indicating the proposed additions and modifications to the site.In light of this, on the 13th October meeting 1969, the Group examined in detail the technical and financial aspects of the conversion plan based on working papers AC/267-WP/1, AC/267-WP/2, AC/267-WP/4, and AC/267-WP/5. After considering these studies, the Group submitted the report to Council (See C-M(69)44), who subsequently reviewed and discussed it as C-R(69)48.Through October and November 1969, the Relocation Group continued to receive recommendations regarding improvements to existing facilities and the construction of new ones. The 19th November Meeting resulted in the approval of the draft report to Council AC/267-D/7 (subsequently circulated under reference number C-M(69)66) and the adoption of the term “Staff Centre” for the planned facilities for sports and cultural activities. On 13th January 1970, in Addendum 3 to Summary Record C-R(69)54, the Council formally approved the recommendations by the Relocation Group in C-M(69)66, stating that the Council should rescind its December 1966 decision (C-R(66)70), to put in hand construction of a new Permanent Headquarters at Heysel, and to proceed as speedily as possible with the Conversion of the present Headquarters. Once the conversion project had been adopted, the main focus of the Relocation Group shifted to the planning and construction of the Staff Centre where the main challenges were financial. On July 5th 1970, the Relocation Group noted that the United States Government, as a result of congressional decision, was unable to contribute its share of the construction cost of the Staff Centre. A reduced project outline for the Staff Centre was later adopted based on a firm bid that was well below the original price ceiling. After the completion of the construction of the Staff Centre, the conversion of Evere into a Permanent Headquarters was completed.

Restricted Committee of the Planning Board for Inland Surface Transport (AC/15(SG))

  • AC/15(SG)
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1966

The AC/15(SG) chronological series contains the documents of the Steering Group of the Planning Board for Inland Surface Transport (hereinafter referred to as the Restricted Committee). The Restricted Committee was established by the PBEIST (or AC/15) on 23 September 1952 (see AC/15-R/3). The initial terms of reference established on 06/10/1952 (see AC/15(SG)D/1) were approved by the PBEIST on 02/12/1952 (see AC/15-R/5). These terms of reference were revised on 22/07/1954 (see AC/15(SG)R/13) and approved by the PBEIST on 21/03/1955 (see AC/15-R/10). The PBEIST was one of the Civil Emergency Planning (CEP) Planning Boards and Committees. To help it in its mission (i.e. in the event of an attack to ensure the survival of the population, support to military operations, protection of vital resources and national recovery, see AC/12-D/357), the PBEIST created a Restricted Committee. The organization and functions of the Restricted Committee were established in close collaboration between the PBEIST and SHAPE (see AC/15(SG)-D/2). The Restricted Committee was responsible for preparing the work of the PBEIST and coordinating the tasks entrusted to all the bodies which were answerable to the PBEIST, in particular the three regional committees (North, Centre and South Europe) and the seven working groups set up within them. To this end, it was authorized to give these groups all required information and instructions (see AC/15-D/1). The Restricted Committee was headed by a chairman who was assisted by a rapporteur (see AC/15-D/1). From 1952 to 1954, it included delegates from Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, and also a representative of SACEUR (see AC/15-R/3). Following a revision of its terms of reference in 1954, it included a representative of each of the regional committees and a representative of SACEUR. Any representative of a member nation could also ask to take part in meetings (see AC/15-D/35). The Restricted Committee reported to the PBEIST. It notified (with its opinion) the PBEIST of all the kinds of work with which it was charged, as well as the final reports of each working group and their sub-groups (see AC/15-D/1). The Restricted Committee was renamed the Steering Group in September 1958 (see AC/15(SG)-R/25). It held its last meeting on 23 and 24 May 1966. A further meeting was scheduled for 5 and 6 December 1966, but no meeting was held on those dates or subsequently (AC/15(SG)R/45). The Restricted Committee can therefore be regarded as dormant since 1966.

RP - Public Diplomacy Division (PDD)

  • PDD RP
  • Corporate body
  • 2003

The NATO Information Service published its first handbook on January 1st, 1952, published both in English and in French. The handbooks were updated and new versions were published every one to three years.

Science Committee

  • AC/137
  • Corporate body
  • 1958-1965

The AC/137 chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee. The Science Committee’s terms of reference were defined at the Council meeting on 29 January 1958 (see C-R(58)6) and presented in document AC/137-D/1. The Committee provided advice on scientific and technical issues of interest to the Atlantic Alliance. It also made recommendations on the actions that needed to be taken to develop NATO’s scientific and technical resources as well as co-operation between the countries, and recommendations regarding the support to be provided to the other international organizations.The Committee set up ad hoc working groups to formulate proposals for future scientific work. They include the following groups, under separate reference: the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Defence Aspects of Psychology (AC/137(DP)), the Defence Research Directors (AC/137(DR)), the Advisory Panel on NATO Science Research Grants (AC/137(RG)), the Working Group on Scholarships (AC/137(S)), the Advisory Group on Space Research (AC/137(SR)), the Study Group on the Von Karman Institute (AC/137(VKI)) and the Ad Hoc Working Party on the Western Science Foundation (AC/137(WF).The experts participating in those groups were appointed by the Science Committee. The work of the various groups was funded by national or international budgets in accordance with the research grant programme, or by special funds set up by NATO for that purpose. The first meeting took place on 26–28 March 1958, with the countries represented by prominent scientists. Thereafter the Science Committee met three times a year.

Science Committee Ad Hoc Working Group on the Defence Aspects of Psychology

  • AC/137(DP)
  • Corporate body
  • 1959

The AC/137(DP) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Ad Hoc Working Group on the Defence Aspects of Psychology. Established by a Science Committee decision on 23 September 1959 (see AC/137-R/5), the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Defence Aspects of Psychology defined its terms of reference at its first meeting on 2–3 November 1959. Its role was to organize a defence psychology conference in summer 1960 and to advise the Office of the Science Adviser on the actions to be taken in order to develop research on defence psychology. After the first meeting, this working group’s documents were no longer given their own specific reference but were simply incorporated into the Science Committee’s chronological document series (AC/137).

Science Committee Ad Hoc Working Party on the Western Science Foundation

  • AC/137(WF)
  • Corporate body
  • 1958

The AC/137(WF) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Ad Hoc Working Party on the Western Science Foundation. The Group was made up of representatives of five Alliance countries: France, Germany, Italy, Norway and the United Kingdom. It was tasked with exploring possible ways of responding to France’s proposal of 11 February 1958 (see AC/137-D/2) on setting up a Western scientific research foundation aimed at improving international co-operation on pure science and applied science. The Working Party met on 21-22 May 1958 and concluded that there was no immediate need for such a foundation but recommended that the Science Committee look into issues related to scholarship programmes, the organization of summer courses and the awarding of research contracts. A report was submitted on 23 May 1958 (see AC/137-D/11) and, its mission accomplished, the Ad Hoc Working Party was dissolved.

Science Committee Advisory Group on Space Research

  • AC/137(SR)
  • Corporate body
  • 1960

The AC/137(SR) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Advisory Group on Space Research. Established by a Science Committee decision at its meeting on 6-7 January 1960 (see AC/137-R/6), the Advisory Group on Space Research was an unofficial ad hoc working group. Its mission was to find ways of intensifying international co-operation on space research and to see whether there were other foreseeable ways of organizing European co-operation on space research. The Science Committee took over responsibility for the topic of space research in 1961.

Science Committee Advisory Panel on NATO Science Research Grants

  • AC/137(RG)
  • Corporate body
  • 1960

The AC/137(RG) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Advisory Panel on NATO Science Research Grants. This was one of three programmes of the Office of the Science Adviser to be funded by NATO in 1959. The grants had to be awarded to international research programmes. The panel was made up of five scholars, to form a group qualified to decide how such grants should be awarded (see AC/137-R/5). Initially stored under the reference AC/137(RG), the documents relating to this panel were incorporated into the Science Committee’s chronological document series as of 1961.

Science Committee Defence Research Directors

  • AC/137(DR)
  • Corporate body
  • 1958-1963

The AC/137(DR) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Defence Research Directors. The idea of setting up a working group for the national directors of scientific research on defence to express their opinions on ways of enhancing the effectiveness of research in the Alliance countries was first proposed in October 1958. The first informal meeting was held on 1-2 December 1958, following which it was decided that one meeting would be held per year. The last meeting was held on 21-22 November 1963, after which the Subcommittee of Defence Research Directors turned into the Committee of Defence Research Directors (see the AC/243 series).

Science Committee Study Group on the Von Karman Institute

  • AC/137(VKI)
  • Corporate body
  • 1965

The AC/137(VKI) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Study Group on the Von Karman Institute. This study group was created by a Council decision in June 1965 (see C-R(65)30). It brought together a group of experts tasked with assessing the Von Karman Institute’s scientific work and making recommendations about its future. The Group met for the first time at the Institute on 5-7 August 1965. After the second meeting, a report concluding that it was necessary to maintain the Institute was submitted to the Science Committee (see AC/137-D/264). As the Study Group had achieved its mission, it was then disbanded.

Science Committee Working Group on Scholarships

  • AC/137(S)
  • Corporate body
  • 1958

The AC/137(S) chronological series contains the records of the Science Committee Working Group on Scholarships. The Working Group was set up at the first meeting of the Science Committee, and its terms of reference were immediately defined (see AC/137-R/1). The Working Group was tasked with gathering intelligence on the frequency of university student exchanges. It also had to provide the Science Committee with proposals on NATO’s co-ordination of the frequency of the exchanges, on the Organization’s financial or other assistance in support of the countries’ student exchange efforts, and finally on NATO’s establishment of a centre tasked with co-ordinating those exchanges.It was also up to the Working Group to provide advice on promoting summer courses and the scholarships to be awarded to those registered for summer courses. After this first meeting, the documents on scholarships were incorporated into the Science Committee’s chronological document series under the reference AC/137.

Second NATO Troop Information Course

  • AC/93
  • Corporate body
  • 1955

The AC/93 chronological series contains the records of the Second NATO Troop Information Course (hereinafter referred to as the Second Course). On the recommendation of the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations (CICR) (see C-M(54)53 dated 21 June 1954), the Council agreed that courses be held to inform the member nations' armed forces about NATO. (See C-R(54)27 dated 3 July 1954.) AC/52-D/85-REV1, produced on 31 March 1955, served as the terms of reference. On 29 June 1955, the Second Course held its closing meeting (see AC/93-R/1). It did not meet again.

Secretary General

  • SG
  • Person
  • 1952-04-04

The Secretary General is the Alliance’s top international civil servant. This person is responsible for steering the process of consultation and decision-making in the Alliance and ensuring that decisions are implemented. The Secretary General is also NATO’s chief spokesperson and the head of the Organization’s International Staff. The function of Secretary General is filled by a senior statesman with high-level political experience in the government of one of the member countries. The person is nominated by member governments for an initial period of four years, which can be extended by mutual consent.

In his day-to-day work, the Secretary General is directly supported by a Private Office and a Deputy Secretary General, who assists the Secretary General and replaces him in his absence. The Deputy Secretary General is also the chairman of a number of senior committees, ad hoc groups and working groups. More generally speaking, the entire International Staff at NATO Headquarters supports the Secretary General, either directly or indirectly.

The Secretary General has three principal responsibilities: Chairman of the North Atlantic Council and other key bodies, spokesperson of the alliance and head of the International Staff.

First and foremost, the Secretary General chairs the North Atlantic Council - the Alliance’s principal political decision-making body - as well as other senior decision-making committees. These include the Nuclear Planning Group, the NATO-Russia Council, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the Mediterranean Co-operation Group. Additionally, together with a Ukrainian representative, he is the chairman of the NATO-Ukraine Commission, as well as the chairman of the NATO-Georgia Commission. Above and beyond the role of chairman, the Secretary General has the authority to propose items for discussion and use his good offices in case of disputes between member states. He acts as a decision facilitator, leading and guiding the process of consensus-building and decision-making throughout the Alliance. He maintains direct contact with heads of state and government, foreign and defence ministers in NATO and partner countries, in order to facilitate this process. This entails regular visits to NATO and partner countries, as well as bilateral meetings with senior national officials when they visit NATO Headquarters. Effectively, his role allows him to exert some influence on the decision-making process while respecting the fundamental principle that the authority for taking decisions is invested only in the member governments themselves.

Principal spokesperson - The Secretary General is also the principal spokesman of the Alliance and represents the Alliance in public on behalf of the member countries, reflecting their common positions on political issues. He also represents NATO vis-à-vis other international organizations as well as to the media and the public at large. To this end the Secretary General regularly holds press briefings and conferences as well as public lectures and speeches.

Head of the International Staff - Third and lastly, the Secretary General is the senior executive officer of the NATO International Staff, responsible for making staff appointments and overseeing its work.

Security Committee

  • AC/35
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/35 chronological series contains the records of the Security Committee.Further to the recommendations made by the Working Group on Security in NATO(1), the Security Committee was established by the Council on 20 August 1952 (C-R(52)18) in order to provide it with an advisory body to which issues involving NATO security policy could be submitted for a review and preparation of the necessary recommendations. This committee is made up of the representatives of all member nations and it reports directly to the Council. It met for the first time on 10 March 1953. The Security Committee examines problems referred to it by the Council, focusing on matters leading to changes in NATO's security policy. It is assisted by an Office of Security created within the NATO International Staff. This office, which is a standing body, is responsible for the overall coordination of security issues within the Organization. It is its responsibility, among other things, to supervise the operation of the security system on a day-to-day basis, including inspecting national and international civilian organizations, reviewing security matters on an ongoing basis, submitting them to the NATO Security Committee and seeing to the implementation of the Council's security decisions. It keeps the Security Committee informed of the results of its activities, allowing the latter to recommend to the Council such changes in the overall security policy as are deemed necessary.The Security Committee is a standing committee which still sits today.

Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee

  • AC/98
  • Corporate body
  • 1955

The AC/98 chronological series contains the records of the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee (SCEPC). The SCEPC, also referred to as the Senior Committee, was established by a Council resolution of 9 November 1955 (C-M(55)100). It resulted from concerns expressed by several member countries regarding inadequate coordination of the reports of the various planning committees dealing in civil emergency planning, as well as gaps in the committee structure. Under its original Terms of Reference, the Senior Committee was to advise the Council and make recommendations on all matters pertaining to civil emergency planning; coordinate the activities of all boards, committees and working groups engaged in civil emergency planning, including guidance on issues raised by the new assumptions, i.e. that in a future war thermo-nuclear weapons would be used; coordinate their activities; transmit their reports with appropriate comments; undertake additional studies on various aspects of civil emergency as deemed necessary, and review periodically the progress made by countries in their civil emergency planning and report its findings to the Council.Each nation was to be represented by the senior official responsible for national coordination of civil emergency planning. The Secretary General or his designee was to chair the Committee. NATO Military Authorities were also invited to attend the meetings, as well as the Chairmen of the Boards, Committees and Working Groups dealing with civil emergency matters. In 1961, Council recommended that the Senior Committee delegate some of its authority to the Co-ordinating Committee (AC/134) in order to co-ordinate the work of other committees and to report directly to the Council such agreed recommendations as could not wait for action to be taken at the Senior Committee level. Following a reappraisal exercise, the Terms of Reference were modified (C-M(65)125 dated 25 November 1965) to enable the SCEPC to continue to meet in plenary session once a year but also to meet as often as necessary in "permanent session" (with the same status, powers and authority as the Senior Committee per se) so that work could be carried out on a continuous basis. It was also decided to add to the SCEPC's original TOR the task of screening all new studies undertaken by the specialized committees to ensure that they conformed with the new objectives and of approving the establishment of sub-committees, ad hoc working groups, and other bodies. Finally, it was to continue the work undertaken until then by the Co-ordinating Committee (disbanded on 8 December 1965, C-R(65)49).

Senior Communications-Electronics Group

  • AC/260
  • Corporate body
  • 1966-1969

The AC/260 chronological series contain the documents of the Senior Communications-Electronics Group. In a 29th June, 1966 meeting, the United States made a statement to the Council on the topic of communication satellites (see C-R(66)30). The US suggested, based on the potential needs of NATO’s future communication system, that a part of the United States Advanced Defence Communication Satellite Program might be made available for NATO purposes. Additionally, it was suggested NATO should make a co-operative effort in the research and development of Ground Terminals. This statement lead to a briefing by the US at a 28th September Council Meeting (C-R(66)52) where the Council came to a general agreement of the direction in which a group would work, and would await a paper by the International Staff that would propose a decision for the Council on the creation of a Senior Communications-Electronics Group, its Terms of Reference and its co-ordination with existing NATO bodies. On the 5th October Meeting, the Council approved the creation of the interim Group, as described in PO/66/457, with an open-ended term, to be eventually converted into a permanent high-level communications, electronics policy committee. The main task for the Senior Communications-Electronics (C-E) Group was to make recommendations on the desirability of establishing a NATO Communications Satellite Programme and propose how that programme could be carried out with respect to legal aspects and cost sharing. The proposals to the Council by the US consisted of three phases: Phase I to test and evaluate satellite communications, Phase II to acquire one or two synchronous satellites in order to service unique and vital communication needs of NATO (which would include the acquisition by NATO of some ten ground terminals) and Phase III for NATO participation in the United States ADCSP. With these proposals in mind, the Senior C-E Group addressed the complex technical, legal and financial contributions required for the Programme. Through the next few years, detailed plans for Phases I and II were developed and presented to the Council and the Defence Planning Committee. Such elements addressed included the procurement of Ground Terminals both in North America and many European countries, progress reports for the Phase implementation, and the consultation of a NATO-Wide Communications System for use in times of tension and crisis. On 6th October 1967, the Terms of Reference for the Group were expanded (See AC/260-D/29), based on recommendations to Council by the Study Group on Reorganization (See C-R(67)41). The new Terms of Reference included NATO’s civil communications whose requirements, which still needed to be assessed, could ultimately be co-ordinated with those of the military. The Group continued to produce detailed documents outlining Phase II of the Programme and the co-ordination of NATO civil and military communications. In a progress report on 24th June 1969 (AC/260-D/92), the Group reported that no slippage was expected in the date of the launch of the first satellite (January 1970). In an 18th July 1969 meeting, the Defence Planning Committee agreed to the establishment of a Joint NATO Communications and Electronics Committee as proposed by the Group in AC/260-DS/4. This committee would become responsible for the tasks that were being undertaken by the Senior C-E Group, and thus the Senior C-E Group would be rendered obsolete and would be disestablished.

SGREP - Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO / 1952-1956) and Office of the Standing Group Representative (SGREP / 1956-1967)

  • SGREP
  • Corporate body
  • 1956-1967

This chronological series contains the memoranda sent by the Standing Group Liaison Office in Paris (SGLO, renamed SGREP after 25 December 1956). The representative of the Liaison Office and his colleagues (Secretary and Deputy Secretaries) were regularly invited to Washington for training and briefings by the SG and its subordinate groups, and also by the Military Committee (MC). The SGREPs were addressed to: -the Standing Group in Washington -the Secretary General or the Executive Secretary Their aim was to provide information on ongoing discussions among the military authorities and any problems that might arise. The document in question was generally attached to the SGREP.

Special Committee of Ministers on Infrastructure

  • AC/38
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/38 chronological series contains the records of the Special Committee of Ministers on Infrastructure. This committee was established following a meeting of the North Atlantic Council. As part of a revision of the requirements for the fourth infrastructure slice, the Military Committee underscored the need for an agreement on the funding of infrastructure programmes, failing which delays would build up and thus interfere with the deployment of military forces. At its meeting on 15-19 December 1952, the Special Committee of Ministers on Infrastructure endeavoured to find and discuss funding solutions (in particular cost-sharing solutions for the projects listed in North Atlantic Council memorandum C-M(52)129)) and report on them to the Council.

Special Group on the Future Tasks of the Alliance

  • AC/261
  • Corporate body
  • 1966-12-13

In late 1966, the approaching 20th anniversary of NATO and the adjustments made necessary by the French decision of 1966 to withdraw from the military integrated structure prompted the Alliance to re-examine its relevance and adaptation to the existing political context.

At the December 1966 NATO Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Pierre Harmel, Belgium’s Foreign Minister, tabled a proposal calling for a joint analysis of the major events of the past twenty years. He recommended the study be used to determine the effect of events on the objectives and methods of the Alliance and decide whether it was necessary to improve consultation within it. The Foreign Affairs Ministers responded favourably to Harmel’s proposal and empowered Manlio Brosio, NATO Secretary General and the Permanent Representatives to the North Atlantic Council (NAC) with a comprehensive mandate to develop procedures for the study and determine its scope.

In February 1967, the NAC decided to constitute an open-ended Special Group of representatives designated by governments, under the Chairmanship of the Secretary General. The NAC gave the Special Group on the Future Tasks of the Alliance (also known under the reference AC/261) the task of studying “ (a) the development of political events as it affects the purposes of the Alliance; (b) the consequent future tasks of the Alliance”. The Special Group was to establish such special procedures, sub-groups and rapporteurs, and request such staff work from the International Staff as it deemed necessary” [ see reference C-M(67)11].

During the month of March 1967 the Special Group met on five occasions in private session to encourage wide ranging discussions. It was during these meetings that they decided on the framework for the conduct of the study . The Special Group created four sub-groups were created, each working on a broad subject of interest to the Alliance and under the guidance of a rapporteur of repute:

• Sub-Group One, East/West Relations: Mr. K.Schutz, State Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Germany and Mr. J.H.A. Watson , Assistant Under Secretary of State. Foreign Affairs, United Kingdom
• Sub-Group Two, Inter-allied Relations: Mr. Paul-Henri Spaak, Minister of State, Belgium
• Sub-Group Three, General Defence Policy : Mr. Foy Kohler, Deputy Under Secretary of State, United States
• Sub-Group Four, Relations with other Countries: Dr. C.L. Patijn, Professor of International Relations, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)

The NATO International Staff provided secretarial support and was tasked with gathering background material for the sub-groups .

The sub-groups met several times from May to June to prepare a draft interim report which was approved by the NAC [se reference C-M(67)33] following some amendments at their Ministerial meeting of 13 - 14 June in Luxembourg.

Following this initial phase, the sub-groups began to address the substantive issues. Although the reports were prepared under the responsibility of each rapporteur, a meeting of all the sub-groups took place in July to harmonise the work and avoid duplication. After having gone through several stages, the reports were reviewed and their findings compared during a last meeting in October at Ditchley Park (UK).

The following month, the Special Group held a high-level meeting over two days during which the substance of the Report was discussed. The Secretary General circulated a draft Report which was discussed and amended by the Special Group on 22 November 1967.

The Report on the Future Tasks of the Alliance was presented at the NATO Ministerial Session and after some last amendments was approved by Foreign Affairs Ministers on 14 December 1967 and subsequently released to the press [See reference C-M(67)74(2nd revised) and M4(67)3, respectively].

Special Working Group on International Technological Co-operation

  • AC/262
  • Corporate body
  • 1967-1968

The AC/262 chronological series contain the documents of the Ad Hoc Special Working group on International Technological Co-operation.On 5th October, 1966, an Italian proposal entitled “Europe’s Technological Gap and the Desirability of an Internation Collaboration for a “New Drive”” was presented to the Council (PO/66/460). This proposal acknowledged the need to promote scientific research and the exchange of information in a time of rapid technological growth. The working group was set up by the Council on March 1st, 1967 (C-R(67)10, Item I, paragraph 49). The Chairman noted in PO/67/103, based on preliminary discussion, it was agreed that NATO had a role to play in promoting technological co-operation among its members and a special working group was proposed to assist the Council in studying the Italian ideas further. The Italian Foreign Minister, Mr. A. Fanfani, opened the discussion citing the need to address the scientific, economic and politcal aspects of the widening technological gap between the United States and Europe.Based on the resulting discussion, the Council decided to create the Special Working Group to study the procedure which might be followed for the further examination and implementation of the Italian proposals. The amended draft Terms of Reference contained four main points.Prior to the first meeting, held on 20 April, 1967, the Terms of reference were further examined and defined to serve as a useful base for discussion. Point (a) defined the nature of problems to be faced with respect to disparities in economic and technological development and point (b) defined the requirement to report the progress being made on the consideration of issues by other concerned organsations; such as the OECD and the European Space Conference (see AC/262-WP/2). Point (c) outlined the efforts to be made at a National level, European level and the co-operation on a wider basis, in particular between Europe and the United States (see AC/262-WP/3). Point (d) discussed the area of work which may be properly done within NATO, and cited possible developments in sectors of defence technology (specifically New Materials, Defence Electronics, Oceanography, Energy Storage and Conversion, and Computer Science).On 5 May 1967, the committee developed a Draft Report to Council, based on the 20th April meeting (see AC/262-WP/5), concluding with a draft resolution on International Technological Co-operation brought to the Council 25th May, 1967 (see CM(67)31).A final draft report from the Working group (see AC/262-WP/6-REV(1)), which took into account the views expressed at the meeting on 28th November, 1967, included both General considerations and Consideration by Sectors, and proposed a formal decision for the the draft report submitted to Ministers (C-M(67)76). The Ministers, at their Session 14th December, 1967, approved the report, and additionally recommended that the Working Group now be disbanded. On 29th March, 1968 the Special Working Group on International Technological Co-operation was disbanded. Approproate bodies indicated to pursue a number of studies discussed by AC/262 were the Science Committee, the Defence Research Group and AGARD.

Special Working Group on the Establishment of Financial and Economic Board

  • AC/3
  • Corporate body
  • 1951

The AC/3 chronological series contains the records of the Special Working Group on the Establishment of Financial and Economic Board. On March 1951 the US Representative on the Deputies Council recommended the establishment of a central economic and financial agency which would be given a broad assignment of promoting effective cooperative action in the field of financial and economic mobilisation in support of the defence effort, including advance planning for eventual wartime measures. This agency would take over the functions exercised by the Permanent Working Staff of the Defence Financial and Economic Committee (DFEC), the Economic and Financial Working Group and the Advisory Group on Raw Material Problems. On 21st March 1951 the Council Deputies after having examined the United States proposal for the creation of a Financial and Economic Board (see D-D(51)72) and the memorandum submitted by the French Deputy on the subject of Economic Consequences of Rearmament (see D-D(51)56), agreed to invite member governments to designate representatives to constitute an Ad Hoc Organizing Committee and to encourage them to submit recommendations for the creation of one body bringing together responsibility for economic and financial work (see D-D(51)78-REV1).At their meeting on 2nd April the Council Deputies set up an Ad Hoc Committee on the Establishment of a Financial and Economic Board at NATO (see D-R(51)24, Item IV). Under the Chairmanship of the Norwegian Deputy Mr. Skaug, the Special Working Group on the Establishment of Financial and Economic Board met during the week from 9th to 14th April 1951 to prepare a Draft Resolution on the Terms of Reference of the Financial and Economic Board (FEB). During these meetings several Draft Resolutions proposals by the member countries were discussed (i.e. Draft Resolution by the United Kingdom on the creation of a Financial and Economic Board (see Annex to AC/3-R/1). A Resolution to report on the Establishment of Financial and Economic Board was finally drafted (see D-D(51)98) and as a result the Ad Hoc Committee ceased its activity.

STAND - Standing Group

  • STAND
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-1966

The STAND chronological sub-series contains messages sent by the Standing Group (SG) via its secretariat. The STAND documents are messages concerning high-level policies, addressed to the NATO commands, the representative of the SG Liaison Office in London and then Paris, the SG agencies and national Defence Ministries. STAND documents were always approved by the SG or the Steering Committee (SG/SC). After 1954, all messages sent by the SG concerning a policy were STAND documents. Many STAND documents were replies to messages from the SG Liaison Office (LOSTAN and LOM). The SG received two kinds of messages in reply to STAND documents: -from SACEUR or SHAPE - these were known as SHAPTO -from SACLANT - these were known as LANTO

Standing Group

  • SG
  • Corporate body
  • 1949

The SG subfonds contains the records of the Standing Group. In accordance with Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty and the guidance given by the Working Group on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization during the first Council session in Washington in 1949, the Defence Committee (DC) rapidly established the Standing Group (C1-D-1/1 and C1-D-1/2). The Standing Group was subordinate to the Military Committee, and responsible for the everyday business of the latter, which met very rarely. It was made up of representatives of the United States, French and United Kingdom Chiefs of Staff. Its office was fixed in Washington. Other member states with military forces could each appoint a special representative for continuous liaison with the Standing Group.

For the purposes of a unified defence of the North Atlantic area, the Standing Group provided the Regional Planning Groups and the other military bodies with the political instructions and military information which they needed. On the basis of the Regional Groups’ defence plans, which it coordinated and combined, the Standing Group made recommendations to the Military Committee, as it was also invited to do on other strategic questions (C1 D 1/2, DC 1/2). From 1951 to 1966 the Standing Group underwent various changes as part of the reorganization of NATO’s main structures in order to meet the Organization’s increased responsibilities effectively. With the aim of improving coordination between the various bodies, after the Defence Committee(1) was disbanded the Military Committee, which fell directly under the Council’s authority in 1951, became the Organization’s highest military authority, and the Standing Group provided the prime channel of communication with the Council Deputies. In Lisbon in 1952 the Council decided not to change its position with regard to the military bodies, and to further intensify its links with them (D-D(51)86 (Final), C9-D/4). The progressive dissolution of the Regional Groups in favour of commands headed by a Supreme Commander, the need to involve the other nine nations more closely in the work of the Standing Group and the poor liaison between the military bodies and those responsible for armaments or financial and economic questions led the Military Committee to delegate more power to the Standing Group, and to create the Military Representatives Committee (MRC) and the post of Standing Group Liaison Officer (SGLO). At the end of 1950 the Military Representatives Committee was set up to represent the member states not belonging to the Standing Group. It came under the Military Committee, and comprised a representative of the Chief of Staff of each member nation of the Military Committee. However Iceland, which has no military forces, was not represented on the Committee, while Belgium also represented Luxembourg. The Committee was informed about Standing Group activities, and gave opinions that were supported by the staffs of all the member states. It sat permanently in Washington, and took decisions on certain questions in the name of the Military Committee when the latter was not in session. The Standing Group remained the agent and executive body of the Military Committee. It was the higher body to which the Supreme Commanders were responsible. It was also the directing and executive body of the Military Representatives Committee. The Chairman of the Standing Group was also the Chairman of the Military Representatives Committee. The chairmanship was held for three months in rotation. To ensure close cooperation between NATO’s civil and military authorities a Liaison Officer supported by a small staff represented the Standing Group with the Council in London. This official had no power of decision.

In 1952 a Standing Group Liaison Office at the new NATO Headquarters in Paris was set up. The Standing Group Representative (SGREP) with the North Atlantic Council represented the Standing Group as the agent of the Military Committee and directing and executive agent of the Military Representatives Committee. Other military bodies established in 1951 and 1952 received instructions from the Standing Group, i.e. the Military Agency for Standardization (MAS), the Advisory Group on Aeronautical Research and Development (AGARD), the NATO Defence College, the Air Training Advisory Group and various communications agencies in Europe such as the European Military Communications Coordinating Committee (EMCCC) and its sub-committee the European Naval Communications Agency (ENCA), the European Long Lines Agency (ELLA) and the European Radio Frequencies Agency (ERFA) (MC 22/2, MC 4th meeting, DC 24/3 (Final), C6-D/5 (Final), MRC 1, SG 112/11)(2) . For this purpose the Standing Group had working teams, a Secretariat and a Director (forming the embryo of the future Standing Group Planning Staff) with only French, British and American personnel, and stationed in Washington. The working teams prepared joint recommendations to the Standing Group, as well as recommendations on decisions which the Group had to take. There were permanent national working teams, made up of three qualified officers each belonging to one of the three member states, and temporary working teams set up as required. The working teams received instructions from their respective representatives with the Standing Group, and if necessary from the national staffs in Paris, London and Washington. The Standing Group and the working teams were supported by a Secretariat. Besides acting as a military secretariat, this provided for liaison with the military representatives of the Standing Group, the liaison representatives to the Standing Group, and with the Military Production and Supply Board (MPSB). A Director, reporting immediately to the Standing Group, was responsible for the smooth running of the working teams and the Secretariat.

From 1950 the operation and the staff of the Standing Group were extended so that it could deal effectively with all questions. A COSMIC Registry Section, a Communications-Electronics Coordination Section (CECS), Materiel Planners and a Logistics and Materiel Planning Section were put in place. The Logistics and Materiel Planning Section advised the Standing Group on questions concerning the Military Production and Supply Board. It cooperated closely with the Military Production and Supply Board Permanent Working Staff (PWS) liaison group. The Section also coordinated and supervised the advisory technical committees then entrusted with questions not in its remit. The nine advisory technical committees were: the Security Coordination Committee (SCC), Intelligence Committee (IC), Public Relations Policy Committee (PRPC), Standardization Policy and Coordination Committee (SPCC), Research and Development Ad Hoc Committee (RDC), Military Operating Arrangements Ad Hoc Committee (MOAC), Hydrographic Information Ad Hoc Committee (HIC), Meteorological Information Ad Hoc Committee (MC) and the Air Navigation Ad Hoc Committee (CAN). In 1951 the Materiel Planners (three officers each from one of the three member states as from 1952) became a permanent working team. The working teams, now known as international planning teams and composed of nine officers from each of the member states, were grouped in the Planning and General Studies Section. The Materiel Planners formed the Logistics and Materiel Planning Section. There was also a Statistical Section attached to the Secretariat. Finally, at the start of 1951, a Steering Committee comprising three assistant directors designated by each member nation of the Group was created to establish firm links between the Director and the representatives on the one hand, and between the Director and the working teams on the other.

After Lisbon, the responsibilities of the Director and the Standing Group Secretariat were combined, and the secretary also became an assistant director (C1 D 1/2, DC 1/2, SG 2/1 to SG 2/4, SG 2/6, DSGM-31-51, SG 7 (Final), SG 2/8 and DSGM-222-52).In 1955 an International Planning Team report was approved which really embodied the wish for increased cooperation between the Standing Group and the Military Representatives Committee, recommending that the Military Representatives be given all the documents required for their work, systematically informed of and consulted about studies planned, and given regular briefings by the International Planning Teams (SG 14/6 (Final)). The many criticisms of the higher military structures and the solutions proposed by the different players led to significant changes in 1957. The Military Representatives Committee, henceforth known as the Military Committee in Permanent Session (MC/PS), began to function continuously. The Standing Group remained the executive agent of the Military Committee in Chiefs of Staff Session (MC/CS), but also became that of the Military Committee in Permanent Session. The Chairman of the Military Committee in Permanent Session was also the standing Chairman of the Military Committee. Designated by the Military Committee in Chiefs of Staff Session, he was preferably from a member state not belonging to the Standing Group. The Chairman had a purely international role, with a term of office of two years that might be extended to three. The Chairman was aided by the Director of the Standing Group staff. Planners from non-members of the Standing Group were assigned to the Standing Group Planning Staff, while the Secretariat was also internationalized by personnel from countries outside the Standing Group (MC 57/1, MC 71/1 (Revised), C-R(57)49 and MCM-60-63). Finally, for the sake of equitable participation by all member states on the one hand and efficient working of the Standing Group on the other, the Standing Group Planning Staff was made fully international in 1964 following approval of the Standing Group report by the Military Committee in Permanent Session. The Staff was thus made up of the Director’s Office, four divisions (the Long Term Planning Division, the Organization, Training and Operational Plans Division, the Logistics and Infrastructure Division and the Research and Development, Agencies, and Special Projects Division), the Assistant Director for Meteorology and the Chairman of the Communications-Electronics Committee. The Director’s Office comprised the Director and a small personal staff of four officers. The Director, the head of the international organization, was selected by the Military Committee in Permanent Session from the candidates put forward by the non-Standing Group nations, for a term of two years which could be extended by up to one year. Each division had an Assistant Director and about ten staff officers tasked with the study projects (MCM-60-63; MC 2/2, section 2). At the end of this reorganization the Standing Group Staff was at the service of all member states, while the members of the Standing Group and their national delegations represented the interests of their respective countries. It was the withdrawal of France from the Alliance’s integrated military structure in particular that led to the abolition of the Standing Group in 1966. The powers of the Standing Group were transferred to the Military Committee as of 1 July 1966. The International Planning Staff, in the person of its Director, was then put under the authority of the Military Committee Chairman. The Standing Group Representative, henceforth the Military Committee Representative (MCREP) with the North Atlantic Council, together with his staff, was likewise put under the authority of the Military Committee in the person of the Chairman. The military bodies previously under the authority of the Standing Group, including the Military Agency for Standardization (MAS), the Advisory Group on Aeronautical Research and Development (AGARD), the NATO Defence College (NDC), the Allied Communications Security Agency (ACSA), the Allied Long Lines Agency (ALLA), the Allied Naval Communications Agency (ANCA) and the Allied Radio Frequencies Agency (ARFA), henceforth also came under the Military Committee (C-M(66)59, C-R(66)26, MCM-85-66 (Revised), MC 112, MC 2/4 (Final) and MC 2/5 (Final)(3).

Standing Group Liaison Office

  • SGLO
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1956

This chronological series contains the memoranda sent by the Standing Group Liaison Office in Paris (SGLO, renamed SGREP after 25 December 1956). The SGLOs were sent by the representative of the Liaison Office or one of his colleagues: -to the Standing Group in Washington (often in response to a memorandum produced by the SG secretariat)-to the Secretary General or the Executive Secretary to inform them of instructions received from the SG and suggest comments The document in question was generally attached to the SGLO. The SGLOs were produced between May 1952 (Liaison Office moved from London to Paris) and December 1956 (Liaison Office renamed Office of the Standing Group Representative - SGREP)

Standing Group Liaison Office - Vice-Admiral R.M. Dick

  • RMD
  • Corporate body
  • 1954

This chronological series contains the memoranda of Vice-Admiral R.M. Dick (representative of the Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO) in Paris in 1954). Vice-Admiral Dick worked for the Military Committee (MC) and was management and implementation officer for the Military Representatives Committee (MRC). He worked under the authority of the SG and his role was to present the positions and discussions of the SG to the NATO bodies in Paris and vice versa. This involved military advice and information. (See CSGM-003-51 and SG-112-11-FINAL.)

Standing Group Liaison Office Paris

  • SGLP
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1966

This chronological series contains the memoranda sent by the Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO) in Paris. After the transfer of the Liaison Office from London to Paris in May 1952, its secretariat continued to produce a large number of memoranda addressed to: -the French authorities (mainly concerning SGLO premises and personnel) -SG agencies in Paris and London-SHAPE -the NATO civilian authorities. These memoranda (known by the acronym “SGLP") dealt with administrative and organizational issues. A large number of them set out the point of view and decisions of the military authorities based in Washington (including the SG). They were presented to various civil and military authorities and dealt with all sorts of contentious issues. Many SGLPs were replies to questions put to the military authorities. Others were requests for clarification from the military authorities seeking a better understanding of the objectives of the NAC, the civilian committees and the International Staff (IS).The principal recipients of SGLP memoranda were: -the Secretary General and the Executive Secretary -the NAC and civilian committees -SHAPE -SG agencies in Paris and London (in particular the NATO Defence College, the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), electronics and communications agencies, and the military standardization agency).Some SGLPs were sent directly to national delegations.

Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO / 1952-1956) and Office of the Standing Group Representative (SGREP / 1956-1967)

  • LOM
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1967

This chronological series contains the memoranda sent to the Standing Group by the SG Liaison Office in Paris (SGLO, renamed SGREP after 25 December 1956). During the period when Vice Admiral M.R. Dick (Director of the SG Liaison Office) was working in Washington (March to November 1954), the LOMs were renamed LOM(W). The Liaison Office served as the link between the the military authorities based in Washington (the SG, the Military Representatives Committee - MRC, and the Military Committee in Permanent Session - MC/PS) and the Council, committees and International Staff (IS) based in Europe It was tasked with informing the military authorities and communicating points of view. It therefore needed a thorough knowledge of the SG's positions and had to be able to anticipate potential problems. It achieved this by making frequent trips to Washington, taking part in meetings of the Military Committee in Chiefs of Staff Session (MC/CS) and of the SG in London, then in Paris and at SHAPE, and also by exchanging memoranda (SGM and LOM) and messages (STAND, LOSTAN, etc). LOM memoranda and LOSTAN messages were often requests for SG positions. The SG replied by means of STAND messages via its secretariat. LOM memoranda were produced from September 1951 to June 1967.

Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO / 1952-1956) and Office of the Standing Group Representative (SGREP / 1956-1967)

  • PARSEC
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1967

This chronological series contains the messages sent to the secretariat of the Standing Group (SG) by the Standing Group Liaison Office in Paris (SGLO, renamed SGREP after 25 December 1956). The SGLO/SGREP served as the link between the the military authorities based in Washington (the Standing Group - SG, the Military Representatives Committee - MRC, and the Military Committee in Permanent Session - MC/PS) and the Council, committees and International Staff (IS) based in Europe. The Director of the SGLO/SGREP was tasked with informing the military authorities and communicating their points of view to the Council. He therefore needed a thorough knowledge of the SG's positions and had to be able to anticipate potential problems. He achieved this by making frequent trips to Washington, taking part in meetings of the Military Committee in Chiefs of Staff Session (MC/CS) and of the SG in London, then in Paris and at SHAPE, and also by exchanging memoranda and messages.The messages sent by the Director or the secretariat of the SG to the Liaison Office of the SG Representative in Europe were given various names: •SECLON when the Liaison Office was in London (July 1951 to April 1952) •SECPAR (April 1952 to April 1954), then STASEC (April 1954 to October 1967) after the Office was transferred to Paris The replies received from Paris were named PARSEC.

Standing Group Liaison Office (SGLO / 1952-1956) and Office of the Standing Group Representative (SGREP / 1956-1967)

  • PARMI
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1967

This chronological series contains the messages produced by the secretariat of the SG Liaison Office in Paris (SGLO, renamed SGREP after 25 December 1956) and sent to: -the military authorities in Washington (to inform them about ongoing discussions and request instructions) -the NATO institutions in Paris (to communicate the position of the military authorities) The SGLO/SGREP served as the link between the the military authorities based in Washington (the Standing Group - SG, the Military Representatives Committee - MRC, and the Military Committee in Permanent Session - MC/PS) and the Council, committees and International Staff (IS) based in Europe. The Director of the SGLO/SGREP was tasked with informing the military authorities and communicating their points of view. He therefore needed a thorough knowledge of the SG's positions and had to be able to anticipate potential problems. He achieved this by making frequent trips to Washington, taking part in meetings of the Military Committee in Chiefs of Staff Session (MC/CS) and of the SG in London, then in Paris and at SHAPE, and also by exchanging memoranda and messages.

Standing Group Memoranda

  • SGM
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1966

This chronological series contains the memoranda of the Standing Group (SG). With the exception of the SGMs produced when the SG met in Paris from 25 to 28 April 1956 (reference SGM(Paris) 1-56 to 4-56), all were produced by the secretariat of the SG in Washington. These memoranda were often used to transmit: -decisions of the Military Committee (MC) and the SG to the NATO high commands and the SG agencies -instructions and interpretations resulting from these decisions The first SG memorandum (SGM) was published on 11 October 1949 and the last on 24 October 1966. After the Standing Group was disbanded in 1967, the chronological series of Military Committee memoranda (MCMs) succeeded the SGMs.

Standing Group Military Committee

  • SGWM
  • Corporate body
  • 1954

This chronological series contains the working memoranda of the Standing Group (SG). These documents were prepared by the SG/MC secretariat in Washington.
They were notes or requests concerning draft memoranda or messages at annex.
SGWMs were submitted for information, revision or approval:

  • to a particular group in the SG structure
  • to NATO nations which were not members of the SG (i.e. other than the United States, the United Kingdom and France)
  • to a NATO official (often a member of the high command)
    SGWMs were sometimes used as drafts of Military Committee memoranda (MCM).

Standing Group NATO

  • SGN
  • Corporate body
  • 1961-1967

Index of Effective Military Committee papers.

Standing Group Paris Office

  • SGPO
  • Corporate body
  • 1962-1966

Various communications from the Standing Group, Paris to NATO Secretary General or Chairman, Military Committee

Standing Group Series

  • SG
  • Corporate body
  • 1949-1966

This chronological series contains the formal documents produced by the Standing Group (SG). These documents present reports (drafts and final versions), policies, directives and notes prepared by one or more teams, including the SG/MC secretariat and the SG committees and agencies.The documents resulted from the role of the SG and its task of reporting to the North Atlantic Council (NAC) and advising it on questions of: -high strategic management -NATO high commands -NATO military agencies-annual review and related issues.

Standing Group Steering Committee

  • RECORD-SG/SC
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1965

RECORD-SG/SC documents were records of meetings organized by the SG/SC Director. The role of the Standing Group Steering Committee (SG/SC) was to assist the Director of the Standing Committee (hereinafter referred to as SG). The SG/SC started off as an ad hoc group. It became a committee on 28 June 1951, according to document RECORD-SG/SC-002 entitled "second SG/SC meeting". There is no document which officially approved the creation and terms of reference of the SG/SC. The SG/SC meetings were held at the SG headquarters, in the SG conference room at the Pentagon. They were attended by: -a Chairman (SG Director until 1961, then rotating chairmanship between the three SG nations),- senior SG representatives or their deputies,-the SG Secretary, SACEUR,-guests (depending on the agenda),-the representative of the SG Liaison Office was sometimes invited as an observer. At the meetings: •the SG Director informed attendees about the SG's latest decisions, but also about issues to be solved, •the three SG international working teams (France, UK and US) took note of those issues and produced roadmaps for the Military Representatives Committee (MRC). The RECORD-SG/SC chronological series was closed on 2 March 1965 (RECORD-SG/SC-574).

STANLO - Standing Group

  • STANLO
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1954

The STANLO chronological sub-series contains a type of message sent by the SG secretariat. STANLOs gave details about SG decisions or recommendations sent to: -the director of the SG Liaison Office in Paris, for action-the French ministry of Defence, SACEUR, SHAPE or the Council (NAC), for information purposes

STASEC - Standing Group

  • STASEC
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-1965

The STASEC chronological sub-series contains a type of memorandum sent by the Standing Group (SG). STASECs gave details about SG decisions or recommendations sent to the following addressees. For action, to: -the secretariat of the SG Liaison Office in London, then Paris, -the British, then French Ministry of Defence, For information purposes, to: -the Council Deputies, then the North Atlantic Council (NAC), -the Secretary General, -SACEUR or SHAPE. With the exception of STASECs produced when the SG met in Paris in 1954 and 1955 (reference STASEC(Paris) 1 to 19), all STASEC documents were produced by the SG secretariat in Washintgon.

Steering Group on Reform of the Annual Review

  • AC/159
  • Corporate body
  • 1960

The AC/159 chronological series contains documents on the reform of the annual review. From 1952 to 1966, the annual review was one of NATO’s main tasks. This process evolved to become one of the factors guiding the development of the Alliance’s defence(1). Over time, the annual review procedure became very time-consuming. The review was too complicated and covered too many questions of detail, and it no longer fully served its purpose. From 1959, nations began to question its efficiency. In December 1959, the Council decided to make a more thorough study of the proposals of the Standing Group and Norway on modifying the procedure for future annual reviews. Subsequently, at its meeting on 13 January 1960, it set up a restricted group, namely the Steering Group on Reform of the Annual Review. This group comprised the permanent representatives of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Turkey, the United Kingdomand the United States. One representative of the Standing Group and appropriate members of the International Staff also attended the meetings of the Group, which elected its own Chairman. AC/159 was tasked with studying possible modifications to the annual review to make it both simpler and more effective. The purpose of the Group’s first meeting on 19 January 1960 was to elect a Chairman, develop a work method and establish a programme. Mr J. Léger, the Canadian Permanent Representative, was chosen as Chairman. The Group met six times between 19 January and 4 March 1960, at which point it decided to present its report to the Council and to discontinue its activities. The Group’s report, which was approved by the Council on 23 March 1960 (C-M(60)20), proposed that the annual review should be carried out on a triennial rather than annual basis, so that nations‘ defence programmes could be re-assessed every three years in the light of NATO’s overall requirements. Circumstances prevented the triennial procedure from being fully implemented.

Study Group on Financial Problems Arising from the Stationing of Forces on the Territory of Other NATO Countries

  • AC/291
  • Corporate body
  • 1973

The AC/291 chronological series contains the records of the Study Group on Financial Problems Arising from the Stationing of Forces on the Territory of Other NATO Countries. During the meeting of NATO Defence Ministers of 7th June 1973, the United States Secretary of Defence invited the Allies to reaffirm the principles of burden-sharing and to consider how they might develop a multilateral programme to assist the US in bearing the serious balance of payment deficits occasioned by the stationing of their troops in Europe. On 1st August 1973, the Council decided to establish a Study Group, firstly to consider the impact on the US defence budget of the stationing of US forces on the territory of its Allies in NATO Europe and, secondly, to suggest for consideration a range of multi-lateral measures to reduce that burden. It was also decided that the Study Group might later be authorized to study any similar problems brought to the Council’s attention by other countries (see C-R(73)47). The Study Group was given no formal Terms of Reference.

Study Group on the Alliance and the Problem of Oil Supplies

  • AC/288
  • Corporate body
  • 1972-1975

The AC/288 chronological series contains the documents of the Study Group on the Alliance and the Problem of Oil Supplies. Faced with the dependence of NATO nations on oil imports from the Middle East and North Africa, the Study Group, made up of national experts and representatives of the International Staff and of the NATO military authorities, met on 13 July 1972 to consider the draft terms of reference and work programme for the study on the Alliance and the problem of oil supplies. Two sub-groups were then established to gather the necessary data on the oil requirements of the civil and military sectors: - Sub-Group 1 on Civil Oil Requirements (AC/288(WG/1)), - and Sub-Group 2 on Military Oil Requirements (AC/288(WG/2)), which fell under the International Military Staff (IMS). In accordance with the terms of reference and programme of work approved by the Council on 9 November 1972 (PO(72)412), the Group was to assess the vulnerability of NATO's overall defence capabilities, covering the armed forces, essential industry and other civil activities directly connected with defence, to an interruption of oil supplies. With the Middle East crisis, partial reductions in supplies for a certain period appeared more probable than a total interruption of oil deliveries. On 7 November 1973 the Study Group gave the Council an initial (interim) report based on OECD oil supply and consumption figures for 1971 (C-M(73)94), C-R(73)60, point III), followed on 11 June 1975 by a second report drawing on observations by the permanent representatives and the OECD statistics for 1972 (C-M(75)9), C-R(75)27, point 4). Its principal task was thus completed, and the 1980 forecast envisaged in the terms of reference was not judged to be worthwhile, so the Study Group was dissolved by the Council on 11 June 1975 (C-R(75)27, point 4).

Sub-Committee on Soviet Economic Policy

  • AC/89
  • Corporate body
  • 1954-1972

The AC/89 chronological series contains the records of the Sub-Committee on Soviet Economic Policy. This committee was created in December 1954 as the Working Group on the Comparative Study of Economic Trends in the NATO Countries and the Soviet Bloc. In May 1956, it was renamed the "Working Group on Soviet Economic Policy" and its Terms of Reference were expanded (C-R(56)32).Two tasks were assigned to it: to continue the comparative studies on the economy of the NATO nations and countries in the Soviet bloc, and to prepare periodic studies on the economic measures taken by the Soviet Union with regard to other countries, including China. In September 1956, it was tasked with a regular and ongoing mission, taking on the name of "Committee on Soviet Economic Policy". In May 1958, the Committee was renamed the "Sub-committee on Soviet Policy" and was attached to the Economic Committee. The Sub-committee operated under this name until 1970, at which time its name was changed to "Economic Sub-committee on Soviet Economic Policy" (C-R(70)8). As far as the end of its work is concerned, no document has been found attesting to the Sub-committee's disbandment. It appears to have amalgamated with the Economic Committee(1). The last record in this series was circulated on 10 August 1972.

Subject File - Non-Proliferation Treaty

  • NPT
  • Corporate body
  • 1963-1969

The NPT was hailed as a landmark treaty, offering a solution to a complicated set of problems facing the world at the time. Prior to the NPT, more than 20 countries were actively seeking nuclear weapons. The NPT created a legal framework defining nuclear weapon possessor and non-possessor states, and providing the context for their cooperation on all three pillars.

The Treaty is founded on three pillars: non-proliferation; disarmament; and peaceful use of nuclear weapons. Many of the records focus on US-USSR negotiations on Articles I and II of the Treaty regarding stopping the spread of nuclear weapons, and talks about Article III, on safeguards.

Task Force on Further Action in the Field of Scientific and Technical Cooperation

  • AC/132
  • Corporate body
  • 1957

On 24 April 1957, the Council approved the report of the Task Force on Further Action in the Field of Scientific and Technical Cooperation in its "first version" (AC/123) (see C-R(57)25) and thereby the creation of AC/132 in place of AC/123. Under its terms of reference (C-M(57)50), AC/132 was required to prepare a conference of experts on actions to be taken to develop the following in the NATO nations: -a highly-qualified scientific and technical workforce-applied research (see AC/132-R/1)For NATO and the western camp, the objective was to gain the advantage over the Soviet Union in terms of defence, economics and cultural life. AC/132 was composed of: -Dr J.B. Koepfli (Chairman) and a special assistant -one or two representatives for Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom -the SHAPE Scientific Advisor The invited representatives were required to keep informed those countries which were not involved in the work. AC/132 validated a list of actions to be taken by NATO (proposed by the Chairman's assistant) (see AC/132-R/2): -create an international documentation centre-create NATO institutes specializing in research and development-develop exchange programmes between NATO nation scientists-create a science committee -create a post of Science Advisor to the Secretary General. The idea of a conference of experts was put on hold. The work of AC/132 then came to an end.

Temporary Council Committee

  • TCC
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1952

The TCC chronological series contains the records of the Temporary Council Committee. The Temporary Council Committee was established by a decision of the North Atlantic Council on 19 September 1951 (C/8-D/19) in order to examine issues related to the need to reconcile the requirements of external security on the one hand and the real possibilities of the member nations on the political and economic fronts on the other. The committee comprised representatives from the twelve member nations and was chaired by Mr. Averell Harriman (United States). An Executive Bureau (EB) responsible for carrying out the analytical work was set up(1). In October 1951, a Selection and Assessment Committee (SCC) was established (TCC-D(51)/2) to make recommendations on the cost-cutting measures capable of reducing the cost of establishing and maintaining military forces(2). In October 1951, the member nations received a questionnaire designed to objectively analyze the military situation. The questions asked dealt with the status of the land, sea and air components, as well as the arrangements for increasing the Armed Forces' manning levels. Before the Committee had completed its work, an interim report was submitted (TCC-D/18 and D/19, C/8-D/8) at the 8th Council session in Rome. The Committee's final report was submitted on 18 December 1951 (TCC Report). The Committee was then disbanded on 19 Febrary 1952 (see TCC-R/23).

Temporary Council Committee - Screening and Costing Staff

  • SCS
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1952

The SCS chronological series contains the records of the Screening and Costing Staff of the Temporary Council Committee.
Set up as the Screening and Costing Committee (SCC) on 12 October 1951 by the Executive Board of the Temporary Council Committee, this body was tasked with making recommendations on the cost-cutting measures likely to reduce the cost of establishing and maintaining military forces. Its goal, then, was to identify the lowest costs possible in the interests of cost-cutting. Its studies dealt primarily with the cost of the Army and defence (TCC-D/2 and TCC D/4).
On 26 October 1951, the Temporary Council Committee decided that the Screening and Costing Committee would henceforth be referred to as the Screening and Costing Staff (SCS), and that all references to the Screening and Costing Committee in documents would be deemed to refer to the Screening and Costing Staff (TCC-R/6).
The Screening and Costing Staff was disbanded at the same time as the Temporary Council Committee in February 1952.

TOSHAP - Standing Group

  • TOSHAP
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1954

The TOSHAP chronological sub-series contains messages sent by the Standing Group (SG) secretariat. Many of the TOSHAPs are replies to messages from SHAPE or SACEUR (SHAPTO). They were sent: for action, to: -SHAPE or SACEUR -the British, then French Ministry of Defence -(sometimes also the Ministry of Defence of other NATO nations)for information, to:- the SG Liaison Office in London, then Paris -NATO commands -SG agencies

Working Group in charge of studying the Supervision, Operation and Maintenance of the NATO Pipeline System

  • AC/76
  • Corporate body
  • 1954-1956

The AC/76 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group in charge of studying the Supervision, Operation and Maintenance of the NATO Pipeline System. This working group was set up by the Council on 12 May 1954 (C-R(54)21). It was tasked with studying the proposals of the Permanent Group (SGM 234-54) for the supervision, operation and maintenance of the NATO POL pipeline system. Its first meeting took place on 21 May 1954, chaired by Mr. A.R.G. Barnes, the Deputy Executive Secretary, assisted by national representatives, members of the International Staff and representatives of the Permanent Group and SHAPE.

At its fifth meeting on 15-16 February 1955, the Working Group in charge of the Supervision, Operation and Maintenance of the NATO Pipeline System decided to entrust the organization of the pipeline system for the Central Europe area to an ad hoc working group made up of representatives from the countries concerned. A second working group, composed of representatives from the Host Nations and User Nations located in the North and South Command zones, was tasked with examining the question of how to organize the system for the north and south European regions.

Their deliberations resulted in a report to the Council, submitted as C-M(55)74 and dated 5 August 1955. In its work, the Group took into account, inter alia, the following points:
(a) the NATO POL pipeline system is an extensive and complex network with an estimated length of approximately 7,000 km and a storage capacity of about 1,743,000 m3.
(b) The Organization must be ready to commence operations as usable sections are completed.
(c) The networks must be capable of meeting military requirements at all times.
It was proposed to structure the NATO POL system as follows:
(1) Central Europe region- NATO Pipeline Committee- Central Europe Pipeline Policy Committee- Central Europe Pipeline Office- Central Europe Operating Agency
(2) North and South European Regions - NATO Pipeline Committee - National pipeline agencies (made up of representatives from the NATO nation hosting a particular pipeline system).

At the Council meeting on 14th September 1955, Report C-M(55)74 was approved, and the Working Group was invited to continue its deliberations in this area and to submit a second report to the Council in a timely fashion (C-R(55)37).On 23 September 1955, the Working Group in Charge of Studying the Supervision, Operation and Maintenance of the NATO Pipeline System appointed a subgroup made up of representatives from the user nations in Central Europe and tasked it to develop a detailed Programme of Work for the Central Europe Pipeline Office and the Central Europe Operating Agency (AC/76-R/8). This Central Europe Subgroup, under reference AC/76 (CE), began its work that same day.

The Working Group's second report to the Council (C-M(56)30, dated 12 March 1956) dealt with the issue of initial linefills. Following on the above two reports, a third and final report by the Working Group was submitted to the Council (C-M(56)83, dated 20 June 1956). Developed by the Central Europe Subgroup, it contained a draft TOR for the Central Europe Pipeline Office. On 11 June 1956, after completing its work, the Working Group decided to disband.

Working Group of Production and Logistics Experts on the Conversion of American Drawings

  • AC/28
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1959

The AC/28 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group of Production and Logistics Experts on the Conversion of American Drawings. The Working Group was created as a result of a meeting between the National Delegations and the Production and Logistics Division on 11 September 1952 (AC/28-D/1). The purpose was to assemble a group of experts to study the problem of converting US technical drawings to permit the manufacture of US equipment and spare parts in Europe. The meetings of the Working Group were attended by technical experts of the national delegations and a Standing Group Liaison Officer. The Working Group met for the first time on 15 September 1952, and held a total of seven meetings over the next two years, the last being on 18 Dec 1953. During these meetings the group discussed the various challenges in the conversion of US technical drawings, such as the measurement and projection systems used, the different testing standards and the symbols used to represent surface finish. The Working Group also discussed how the conversions could make use of and help implement the standards that were being developed by the emerging International Standards Organization (ISO).The Working Group continued to issue documents containing the converted drawings after its last meeting, with the last document issued on 19 March 1959.

Working Group on Aircraft Production Planning

  • AC/16
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/16 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Aircraft Production Planning. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council on 2 April 1952 to review the recommendations laid out in a report by the Combined Aircraft Working Party on 18th January 1952, in light of the comments of Member Governments. The meetings of the Working Group were chaired by Group Captain Lee of the United Kingdom, and were attended by representatives of Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the United States, the United Kingdom, the International Staff and NATO and the DPE. A representative for Belgium was present only at the first meeting. The Working Group held its first meeting on 7 April 1952 and met three more times in that month. During these meetings the Working Group proposed changes to the recommendations for Aircraft Production Planning. The last meeting of the Working Group was held on 16 April 1952.

Working Group on Article 2 Survey

  • AC/108
  • Corporate body
  • 1956

The AC/108 chronological series contains the documents of the Working Group on Article 2 Survey. This working group was established by a Council decision (see C-R(56)24) to verify and review the survey of Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty (see C-M(56)45). It met regularly between May and October 1956, after which time the Working Group continued to consider possible amendments to the new version of Article 2 that was presented in August 1956, with a view to publishing them before the end of 1956. Once its task was completed in December 1956, the Working Group’s work came to an end.

Working Group on Definition of Common Infrastructure

  • AC/29
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1953

The AC/29 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Definition of Common Infrastructure. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council on the 21 October 1952 to discuss the objections raised by the Portuguese government to a decision from the Joint Meeting of the Infrastructure Committee and the Military Budget Committee that certain items were suitable for inclusion in International Military Budgets rather than an Infrastructure Program. The meetings of the Working Group were chaired by Mr. A.J. Bastin and were attended by representatives of the delegations of Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. Mr. R. Stinglhamber (secretary) from the International Staff was also present as well as Lt. Col. Paul M. Strando, a Standing Group Liaison Officer. The Working Group held its first meeting on the 21 October 1952 and met four more times over the succeeding year. During these meetings, the Working Group discussed what criteria the Joint Meeting of the Infrastructure Committee and Military Budget Committee used to arrive at their decision and also to appoint a working group that would devise a clear- cut definition of infrastructure. The last meeting of the Working Group was held on the 7 May 1953.

Working Group on Economic Counter-Measures

  • AC/202
  • Corporate body
  • 1961

The AC/202 chronological series contains records of the Working Group on Economic Counter-measures. This group was established by the Council on 21 August 1961 (C-R(61)37) to examine the economic measures proposed by the Group of Four (United States, United Kingdom, France and the Federal Republic of Germany) further to the Soviet ultimatum of June 1961 (Berlin crisis). Consisting of members of the Political and Economics Committees, it was chaired jointly by the Chairmen of both committees. Its full name was "Working Group on Possible Economic Counter-Measures to deal with the Berlin Crisis". The Group was assigned the following tasks: - to examine the various aspects of the economic counter-measures being contemplated by the four Powers; - to seek to assess the political and economic impact of the enforcement of a total economic blockade of the Soviet bloc, as well as such special economic counter-measures as may be appropriate to deal with various eventualities; - to consider the consequences which the application of these measures would entail for each NATO country, as well as the resources for avoiding or mitigating any unfavourable impact on these countries.The Group met twelve times between 25 August 1961 and 21 December 1961, at which time it was decided to submit its final report to the Council and terminate its work.

Working Group on Information Policy

  • AC/24
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1953

The AC/24 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Information Policy. This group was established by the Council on 25 June 1952 under the title "Working Group on General Information Policy". It was given the following terms of reference:1)assemble the ideas to be inculcated in the nations of the Atlantic Community;2) express opinions on how these ideas should be presented;3)express opinions on the choice of bodies or resources to be employed in discharging its duties. The Group met for the first time on 9 July 1952. In early December 1952, it deleted the word "general" from its title, assuming the name "Working Group on Information Policy".At its meeting on 24 July 1952, the Council broadened the Working Group's terms of reference, tasking it to report back on the most practical methods for allowing NATO to advise governments on the best policy to be adopted in order to counter Communist propaganda. Among the tasks performed by the Group, also worthy of mention is the preparation and organization of the Conference on NATO Information Policy, which was held in February 1953. The Group also discussed issues pertaining to NATO's policy objectives in the areas of propaganda and counter-propaganda, radio programming, tours by journalists, etc. In July 1953, further to a Council decision, the Working Group on Information Policy merged with the Working Group on Social and Cultural Co-operation(1) to form the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations(2).

Working Group on Labour Mobility

  • AC/36
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1957

The AC/36 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Labour Mobility.The origins of this working group can be found in a Council Deputies memorandum (see D-D(52)94) that was discussed by the Council in its meeting on 18 September 1952 (see C-R(52)21). On that occasion, a decision was taken to create a limited section of the International Staff tasked with looking into the issue of manpower, plus a Working Group on Labour Mobility to which the limited section would submit the conclusions of its work.The Group was chaired by the Greek Permanent Representative, and Italy and the United States were represented by their permanent representatives. The first meeting was held on 24 October 1952. The Working Group was tasked with examining the issue of labour, and more specifically: - ways of intensifying migration;- projects designed to keep the manpower shortage from affecting defensive activities;- plans to prevent labour market disturbances in the event of war.Reports were drafted by the Member country governments and presented to the Working Group for use in its work. There was also a Manpower Planning Committee, whose documents were first incorporated into the AC/36 series before being differentiated from the documents of the Working Group on Labour Mobility and given the reference AC/36(M) in January 1955. Many documents produced between January 1953 and January 1955 that were recorded under the AC/36 reference were actually issued by the Working Group on Labour Mobility.The Working Group was disbanded before producing its final report for 1957.

Working Group on Security in NATO

  • AC/6
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1952

The AC/6 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Security in NATO.This group was established on 11 June 1951 by the North Atlantic Council's Deputies (D-R(51)46). Its task was to examine a proposed revision of the security system at NATO contained in document DC 2/7, and to report back to the Council Deputies on the subject.The Working Group on Security in NATO discussed the document in question at its meetings from July to November 1951. In its report dated 12 March 1952, the Group presented its final recommendations on the organization of security at NATO. At their meeting on 19 March, 1952, the Council Deputies approved the above report, and asked the Group to report on the possibility of establishing a European Security Committee.The Working Group discussed this topic over four sessions. At its meeting on 19 May 1952, it set up an editorial committee responsible for developing a proposal to create a European security service. The object of the proposal to revise the security system at NATO proposed in the Working Group Chairman's report dated 25 July 1952 was to implement the two fundamental principles on which the Working Group had agreed. The following recommendations were made: 1) establishment of a NATO Security Committee(1) on which all member nations should be represented, which would be responsible for submitting recommendations to the Council on matters likely to change NATO's security policy;2) establishment of a permanent Security Office within the International Staff responsible for coordinating the security system as a whole at NATO.The Council approved this report at its meeting on 20 August 1952. In July 1952, since its work was now complete, the Working Group on Security in NATO was disbanded.

Working Group on Sharing Costs of SACLANT Headquarters

  • AC/11
  • Corporate body
  • 1951-1952

The AC/11 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Sharing Costs of SACLANT (Supreme Allied Command Atlantic) Headquarters. The Working Group was created by the Council Deputies on 22 August 1951 and given the task of finding a formula for sharing the costs of the SACLANT budget (D-R(51)63). The meetings were chaired by G. O. J. van Tets and attended by a representative of each national delegation. The Working Group held its first meeting on 18 October 1951 and met six additional times over the proceeding seven months. During the meetings the Working Group discussed how the costs of the SACLANT Headquarters should be divided amongst them. This proved to be a very contentious issue and there was considerable debate on the subject. Numerous proposals were made over the course of the meetings; some favoured grouping the nations by size, while others preferred to derive the contribution from GNP. The Working Group finally agreed, albeit with reservations, to a method of dividing the costs on their last meeting on 4 April 1952.

Working Group on Shipping Needs in Times of War

  • AC/7
  • Corporate body
  • 1951

The AC/7 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Shipping Needs in Times of War. The Working Group was created by the Council Deputies during their meeting on 5 July 1951 to clarify the issue of shipping requirements in times of war, following a cable from the Standing Group on the topic (AC/7-N/1). The meeting of the working group was attended by a representative of each national delegation, an officer of the Standing Group, the Chairman of the Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (PBOS), a representative from SHAPE and a member of the Financial and Economic Board. The Working Group held its first and only meeting on 19 July 1951. They discussed the finer points of war time shipping, particularly the distinction between civil and military needs.

Working Group on Social and Cultural Co-operation

  • AC/31
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1953

The AC/31 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Social and Cultural Co-operation. This group was set up by the Council in September 1952 in order to continue the studies undertaken by the Atlantic Community Committee(1) and to ascertain how to implement the approved projects. The Working Group met for the first time on 10 December 1952. Its first task was to more closely define the scope of its work and develop a Programme of Work. Initially, it focused its efforts on developing proposals aimed at promoting cultural co-operation at the international level, whether within various international, government or other organizations, or within the framework of bilateral and regional agreements which were given concrete form, for example, by exchanges of teaching staff, students and documents. The Group also addressed issues involving NATO scientific research, and looked for ways of fostering cultural co-operation with the Armed Forces of the NATO nations. In July 1953, further to a Council decision, the Working Group on Social and Cultural Co-operation merged with the Working Group on Information Policy(2) to form the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations(3).

Working Group on Taxation of Certain International Employees

  • AC/30
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1957

The AC/30 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on Taxation of Certain International Employees. The Working Group was created by the International Secretariat, upon receiving instruction by the North Atlantic Council to make arrangements to study the question, raised by the Legal Working Group, of exemption from income tax of the emoluments of the international staff of NATO and of NATO military headquarters. The first meeting of the Working Group was held on 27 October 1952, and was attended by a member of each national delegation. Two subsequent meetings were held on 16 June and 21 July 1953. During these meetings the delegates discussed the various proposals put forward on establishing a suitable scheme for the taxation of members of the International Staff, taking into account the system used by other international organisations. The Working Group submitted their final report to the Council on 28 October 1953. In 1957 two further documents were issued under the AC/30 series, this time as the Working Group on the Taxation of International Staff Emoluments. This Working Group was created by the Civilian Budget Committee on 7 February 1957. The group held one meeting on 19 March 1957 and consisted of delegates from Turkey, Italy and the United States.

Working Group on TCC Questionnaires

  • AC/17
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/17 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on TCC Questionnaires. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council Deputies to give the Greek and Turkish Representatives an idea of the kind of information the International Secretariat wished to know about their countries, in order to carry out the annual review in the autumn of 1952. The meeting of the Working Group was chaired by Mr. G.S. Taylor and was attended by representatives of the Greek and Turkish delegations, as well as members of the Defence Production Board, Financial and Economic Board, the Standing Group and Council Deputies. The Working Group held its first and only meeting on 1 April 1952.

Working Group on the Employment of Firms and Companies in NATO Countries on Contracts Involving the Disclosure of Classified Information

  • AC/13
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/13 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on the Employment of Firms and Companies in NATO Countries on Contracts Involving the Disclosure of Classified Information. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council on 11 January 1952 to discuss the employment of contracted firms in NATO countries and the disclosure of classified information related to this employment, and to then produce a draft directive for the Council of Deputies. The Working Group held its first meeting on 11 January 1952 and met one more time in the same year. During these meetings the Working Group produced draft directives which included recommendations made by the Standing Group (S.G.92/2(Final)) regarding sub-contractors. The meetings of the Working Group were chaired by N.E.P. Sutton, Executive Secretary, and the last meeting of the Working Group was held on 24 January 1952.

Working Group on the Ministerial Meeting of the Council

  • AC/26
  • Corporate body
  • 1952-1956

The AC/26 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on the Ministerial Meeting of the Council. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council on 24 July 1952 to examine arguments for and against holding a Ministerial meeting that coming Autumn and to then propose a draft agenda should that meeting take place (C-R(52)17 Item II).The meetings of the Working Group were chaired by Mr Richard D Coleridge (later Lord Coleridge), Executive Secretary, and were attended by a representative of each national delegation, members of the International Staff from a relevant division, such as Political Affairs or Economics and Finance, and occasionally a Standing Group Liaison Officer. The Working Group held its first meeting on 5 August 1952, and met 24 more times over the succeeding four years. The group generally conducted two to three meetings each year during the Spring and Fall, in advance of the Ministerial meetings of the Council. During these meetings the Working Group discussed what should be included on the agenda of the upcoming Ministerial meeting, and whether or not a public session should be held. The last meeting of the Working Group was held on 11 April 1956.

Working Group on the Provisional Agenda for the Meeting of the Council and the Standing Group

  • AC/33
  • Corporate body
  • 1952

The AC/33 chronological series contains the records of the Working Group on the Provisional Agenda for the Meeting of the Council and the Standing Group. The Working Group was created by the North Atlantic Council on 8 October 1952, by asking the Standing Group Liaison Officer to arrange a meeting with all delegations to prepare an agenda for the upcoming meeting of the Council and the Standing Group (C-R(52)24). The only meeting held by the Working Group took place on 13 October 1952. It was chaired by the Standing Group Liaison Officer and attended by representatives from, at least, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Greece, the Netherlands, Turkey and the United Kingdom. During the meetings, the national representatives presented a variety of questions which they would like to see raised during the meetings with the Standing Group. In the end no firm agenda was decided upon, as it was felt that many of the delegation’s points would be addressed during the Standing Group’s presentation and that in order to allow a free exchange of views the questions prepared in advance should not be too many or too specific in nature.

Working Group on Trends in Soviet Foreign Policy

  • TSP
  • Corporate body
  • 1956

The TSP chronological series contains the memoranda of the Working Group on Trends of Soviet Policy(1). The first document is dated 6 June 1956. The object of the last meeting of the Group, which was held on 19 November 1956, was to finalize the document for the Ministers.

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